Implantation of drug-eluting stents (DESs) via percutaneous coronary intervention is the most popular treatment option to restore blood flow to occluded vasculature. The many devices currently used in clinic and under examination in research laboratories are manufactured using a variety of coating techniques to create the incorporated drug release platforms. These coating techniques offer various benefits including ease of use, expense of equipment, and design variability. This review paper discusses recent novel DES designs utilizing individual or a combination of these coating techniques and their resulting drug release profiles.

References

References
1.
NHS
, 2014, “
Atherosclerosis
,” National Health Service, Redditch, UK, http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/atherosclerosis/Pages/Introduction.aspx
2.
Rao
,
S. V.
,
Califf
,
R. M.
,
Kramer
,
J. M.
,
Peterson
,
E. D.
,
Gross
,
T. P.
,
Pepine
,
C. J.
,
Williams
,
D. O.
,
Donohoe
,
D.
,
Waksman
,
R.
,
Mehran
,
R.
, and
Krucoff
,
M. W.
,
2008
, “
Postmarket Evaluation of Breakthrough Technologies
,”
Am Heart J.
,
156
(
2
), pp.
201
208
.
3.
Newsome
,
L. T.
,
Kutcher
,
M. A.
, and
Royster
,
R. L.
,
2008
, “
Coronary Artery Stents: Part I. Evolution of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
107
(
2
), pp.
552
569
.
4.
Kuntz
,
R. E.
,
Piana
,
R.
,
Pomerantz
,
R. M.
,
Carrozza
,
J.
,
Fishman
,
R.
,
Mansour
,
M.
,
Safian
,
R. D.
, and
Baim
,
D. S.
,
1992
, “
Changing Incidence and Management of Abrupt Closure Following Coronary Intervention in the New Device Era
,”
Cathet. Cardiovasc. Diagn.
,
27
(
3
), pp.
183
190
.
5.
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
Kutryk
,
M. J. B.
, and
Ong
,
A. T. L.
,
2006
, “
Coronary-Artery Stents
,”
N. Engl. J. Med.
,
354
(
5
), pp.
483
495
.
6.
Texas Heart Institute
, 2015, “
Balloon Angioplasty and Stents
,” Texas Heart Institute, Houston, TX, http://www.texasheartinstitute.org/HIC/Topics/Proced/angioplasty.cfm
7.
Birkenhauer
,
P.
,
Yang
,
Z.
, and
Gander
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Preventing Restenosis in Early Drug-Eluting Stent Era: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives
,”
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
,
56
(
11
), pp.
1339
1356
.
8.
Wood
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Gets U.S. Regulatory Approval at Last
,” Medscape, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/785641
9.
U.S. FDA, 2013, “TAXUS Express2 Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System–P030025,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, http://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/deviceapprovalsandclearances/recently-approveddevices/ucm081189.htm
10.
Palmerini
,
T.
,
Biondi-Zoccai
,
G.
,
Della Riva
,
D.
,
Mariani
,
A.
,
Sabaté
,
M.
,
Smits
,
P. C.
,
Kaiser
,
C.
,
D'Ascenzo
,
F.
,
Frati
,
G.
,
Mancone
,
M.
,
Genereux
,
P.
, and
Stone
,
G. W.
,
2014
, “
Clinical Outcomes With Bioabsorbable Polymer–Versus Durable Polymer-Based Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents: Evidence From a Comprehensive Network Meta-Analysis
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
63
(
4
), pp.
299
307
.
11.
Joner
,
M.
,
Finn
,
A. V.
,
Farb
,
A.
,
Mont
,
E. K.
,
Kolodgie
,
F. D.
,
Ladich
,
E.
,
Kutys
,
R.
,
Skorija
,
K.
,
Gold
,
H. K.
, and
Virmani
,
R.
,
2006
, “
Pathology of Drug-Eluting Stents in Humans: Delayed Healing and Late Thrombotic Risk
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
48
(
1
), pp.
193
202
.
12.
Camenzindm
,
E.
,
Steg
,
P. G.
, and
Wijns
,
W.
,
2007
, “
Stent Thrombosis Late After Implantation of First-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents: A Cause for Concern
,”
Circulation
,
115
(
11
), pp.
1440
1455
.
13.
Farb
,
A.
,
Burke
,
A. P.
,
Kolodgie
,
F. D.
, and
Virmani
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Pathological Mechanisms of Fatal Late Coronary Stent Thrombosis in Humans
,”
Circulation
,
108
(
14
), pp.
1701
1706
.
14.
Popma
,
J. J.
,
Weiner
,
B.
,
Cowley
,
M. J.
,
Simonton
,
C.
,
McCormick
,
D.
, and
Feldman
,
T.
,
2007
, “
FDA Advisory Panel on the Safety and Efficacy of Drug-Eluting Stents: Summary of Findings and Recommendations
,”
J. Intervention Cardiol.
,
20
(
6
), pp.
425
446
.
15.
National Library of Medicine
,
2015
, “ClinicalTrials.gov,” U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/
16.
ACC, 2007, “
Definition of Stent Thrombosis: Proposed by Academic Research Consortium, American College of Cardiology Foundation
,” American College of Cardiology, Washington, DC, http://www.cardiosource.com/pops/imagepop.asp?imgid=17564
17.
Palmerini
,
T.
,
Biondi-Zoccai
,
G.
,
Della Riva
,
D.
,
Mariani
,
A.
,
Genereux
,
P.
,
Branzi
,
A.
, and
Stone
,
G. W.
,
2013
, “
Stent Thrombosis With Drug-Eluting Stents: Is the Paradigm Shifting?
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
62
(
21
), pp.
1915
1921
.
18.
Rodriguez
,
A. E.
,
Mieres
,
J.
,
Fernandez-Pereira
,
C.
,
Vigo
,
C. F.
,
Rodriguez-Alemparte
,
M.
,
Berrocal
,
D.
,
Grinfeld
,
L.
, and
Palacios
,
I.
,
2006
, “
Coronary Stent Thrombosis in the Current Drug-Eluting Stent Era: Insights From the ERACI III Trial
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
47
(
1
), pp.
36
38
.
19.
Daemen
,
J.
,
Wenaweser
,
P.
,
Tsuchida
,
K.
,
Abrecht
,
L.
,
Vaina
,
S.
,
Morger
,
C.
,
Kukreja
,
N.
,
Jüni
,
P.
,
Sianos
,
G.
,
Hellige
,
G.
,
van Domburg
,
R. T.
,
Hess
,
O. M.
,
Boersma
,
E.
,
Meier
,
B.
,
Windecker
,
S.
, and
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
2007
, “
Early and Late Coronary Stent Thrombosis of Sirolimus-Eluting and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents in Routine Clinical Practice: Data From a Large Two-Institutional Cohort Study
,”
Lancet
,
369
(
9562
), pp.
667
678
.
20.
Iakovou
,
I.
,
Schmidt
,
T.
,
Bonizzoni
,
E.
,
Ge
,
L.
,
Sangiorgi
,
G. M.
,
Stankovic
,
G.
,
Airoldi
,
F.
,
Chieffo
,
A.
,
Montorfano
,
M.
,
Carlino
,
M.
,
Michev
,
I.
,
Corvajam
,
N.
,
Briguori
,
C.
,
Gerckens
,
U.
,
Grube
,
E.
, and
Colombo
,
A.
,
2005
, “
Incidence, Predictors, and Outcome of Thrombosis After Successful Implantation of Drug-Eluting Stents
,”
JAMA
,
293
(
17
), pp.
2126
2130
.
21.
Ong
,
A. T. L.
,
Hoye
,
A.
,
Aoki
,
J.
,
van Mieghem
,
C. A. G.
,
Rodriguez Granillo
,
G. A.
,
Sonnenschein
,
K.
,
Regar
,
E.
,
McFadden
,
E. P.
,
Sianos
,
G.
,
van der Giessen
,
W. J.
,
de Jaegere
,
P. P. T.
,
de Feyter
,
P.
,
van Domburg
,
R. T.
, and
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
2005
, “
Thirty-Day Incidence and Six-Month Clinical Outcome of Thrombotic Stent Occlusion After Bare-Metal, Sirolimus, or Paclitaxel Stent Implantation
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
45
(
6
), pp.
947
953
.
22.
Kolandaivelu
,
K.
,
Swaminathan
,
R.
,
Gibson
,
W. J.
,
Kolachalama
,
V. B.
,
Nguyen-Ehrenreich
,
K.-L.
,
Giddings
,
V. L.
,
Coleman
,
L.
,
Wong
,
G. K.
, and
Edelman
,
E. R.
,
2011
, “
Stent Thrombogenicity Early in High-Risk Interventional Settings is Driven by Stent Design and Deployment and Protected by Polymer-Drug Coatings
,”
Circulation
,
123
(
13
), pp.
1400
1409
.
23.
Alfonso
,
F.
,
Suárez
,
A.
,
Angiolillo
,
D. J.
,
Sabaté
,
M.
,
Escaned
,
J.
,
Moreno
,
R.
,
Hernández
,
R.
,
Bañuelos
,
C.
, and
Macaya
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Findings of Intravascular Ultrasound During Acute Stent Thrombosis
,”
Heart
,
90
(
12
), pp.
1455
1459
.
24.
Cook
,
S.
,
Wenaweser
,
P.
,
Togni
,
M.
,
Billinger
,
M.
,
Morger
,
C.
,
Seiler
,
C.
,
Vogel
,
R.
,
Hess
,
O.
,
Meier
,
B.
, and
Windecker
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Incomplete Stent Apposition and Very Late Stent Thrombosis After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation
,”
Circulation
,
115
(
18
), pp.
2426
2434
.
25.
Acharya
,
G.
, and
Park
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Mechanisms of Controlled Drug Release From Drug-Eluting Stents
,”
Adv. Drug Delivery Rev.
,
58
(
3
), pp.
387
401
.
26.
Tanner
,
F. C.
,
Yang
,
Z.-Y.
,
Duckers
,
E.
,
Gordon
,
D.
,
Nabel
,
G. J.
, and
Nabel
,
E. G.
,
1998
, “
Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Vascular Disease
,”
Circ. Res.
,
82
(
3
), pp.
396
403
.
27.
Babapulle
,
M. N.
,
2002
, “
Coated Stents for the Prevention of Restenosis: Part II
,”
Circulation
,
106
(
22
), pp.
2859
2866
.
28.
Topol
,
E. J.
, and
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
1998
, “
Frontiers in Interventional Cardiology
,”
Circulation
,
98
(
17
), pp.
1802
1820
.
29.
McGinty
,
S.
,
McKee
,
S.
,
Wadsworth
,
R. M.
, and
McCormick
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Modelling Drug-Eluting Stents
,”
Math. Med. Biol.
,
28
(
1
), pp.
1
29
.
30.
Khan
,
W.
,
Farah
,
S.
, and
Domb
,
A. J.
,
2012
, “
Drug Eluting Stents: Developments and Current Status
,”
J. Controlled Release
,
161
(
2
), pp.
703
712
.
31.
Bittl
,
J. A.
,
2014
, “
Deconstructing Stent Polymers
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
63
(
4
), pp.
308
309
.
32.
van der Giessen
,
W. J.
,
Lincoff
,
A. M.
,
Schwartz
,
R. S.
,
van Beusekom
,
H. M.
,
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
Holmesm
,
D. R.
,
Ellis
,
S. G.
, and
Topol
,
E. J.
,
1996
, “
Marked Inflammatory Sequelae to Implantation of Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Polymers in Porcine Coronary Arteries
,”
Circulation
,
94
(
7
), pp.
1690
1697
.
33.
Boden
,
M.
,
Richard
,
R.
,
Schwarz
,
M. C.
,
Kangas
,
S.
,
Huibregtse
,
B.
, and
Barry
,
J. J.
,
2009
, “
In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the Safety and Stability of the TAXUS Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent
,”
J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.
,
20
(
7
), pp.
1553
1562
.
34.
Roiron
,
C.
,
Sanchez
,
P.
,
Bouzamondo
,
A.
,
Lechat
,
P.
, and
Montalescot
,
G.
,
2006
, “
Drug Eluting Stents: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
,”
Heart
,
92
(
5
), pp.
641
649
.
35.
Ako
,
J.
,
Bonneau
,
H. N.
,
Honda
,
Y.
, and
Fitzgerald
,
P. J.
,
2007
, “
Design Criteria for the Ideal Drug-Eluting Stent
,”
Am. J. Cardiol.
,
100
(
8B
), pp.
3M
9M
.
36.
Grube
,
E.
, and
Buellesfeld
,
L.
,
2004
, “
Rapamycin Analogs for Stent-Based Local Drug Delivery. Everolimus- and Tacrolimus-Eluting Stents
,”
Herz
,
29
(
2
), pp.
162
166
.
37.
Schmidt
,
H.
, and
Menning
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Wet Coating Technologies for Glass
,” SolGel.com, http://www.solgel.com/articles/nov00/mennig.htm
38.
Jang
,
H.-S.
,
Nam
,
H. Y.
,
Kim
,
J.-M.
,
Hahm
,
D.-H.
,
Nam
,
S. H.
,
Kim
,
K. L.
,
Joo
,
J.-R.
,
Suh
,
W.
,
Park
,
J.-S.
,
Kim
,
D. K.
, and
Gwon
,
H.-C.
,
2009
, “
Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Artery Stent Model
,”
Catheter. Cardiovasc. Intervention
,
74
(
6
), pp.
881
888
.
39.
Acharya
,
G.
,
Lee
,
C. H.
, and
Lee
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Optimization of Cardiovascular Stent Against Restenosis: Factorial Design-Based Statistical Analysis of Polymer Coating Conditions
,”
PLoS One
,
7
(
8
), p.
e43100
.
40.
Song
,
S.-J.
,
Park
,
Y. J.
,
Park
,
J.
,
Cho
,
M. D.
,
Kim
,
J.-H.
,
Jeong
,
M. H.
,
Kim
,
Y. S.
, and
Cho
,
D. L.
,
2010
, “
Preparation of a Drug-Eluting Stent Using a TiO2 Film Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition as a Drug-Combining Matrix
,”
J. Mater. Chem.
,
20
(
23
), pp.
4792
4801
.
41.
Park
,
S.
,
Bhang
,
S. H.
,
La
,
W.-G.
,
Seo
,
J.
,
Kim
,
B.-S.
, and
Char
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Dual Roles of Hyaluronic Acids in Multilayer Films Capturing Nanocarriers for Drug-Eluting Coatings
,”
Biomaterials
,
33
(
21
), pp.
5468
5477
.
42.
Bakhshi
,
R.
,
Edirisinghe
,
M. J.
,
Darbyshire
,
A.
,
Ahmad
,
Z.
, and
Seifalian
,
A. M.
,
2009
, “
Electrohydrodynamic Jetting Behaviour of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Nanocomposite
,”
J. Biomater. Appl.
,
23
(
4
), pp.
293
309
.
43.
Levy
,
Y.
,
Mandler
,
D.
,
Weinberger
,
J.
, and
Domb
,
A. J.
,
2009
, “
Evaluation of Drug-Eluting Stents' Coating Durability–Clinical and Regulatory Implications
,”
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B: Appl. Biomater.
,
91
(
1
), pp.
441
451
.
44.
Okner
,
R.
,
Shaulov
,
Y.
,
Tal
,
N.
,
Favaro
,
G.
,
Domb
,
A. J.
, and
Mandler
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Electropolymerized Tricopolymer Based on N-Pyrrole Derivatives as a Primer Coating for Improving the Performance of a Drug-Eluting Stent
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
1
(
4
), pp.
758
767
.
45.
Shaulov
,
Y.
,
Okner
,
R.
,
Levi
,
Y.
,
Tal
,
N.
,
Gutkin
,
V.
,
Mandler
,
D.
, and
Domb
,
A. J.
,
2009
, “
Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Grafting Onto Stainless Steel Surfaces: Application to Drug-Eluting Stents
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
1
(
11
), pp.
2519
2528
.
46.
Ammam
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Electrophoretic Deposition Under Modulated Electric Fields: A Review
,”
RSC Adv.
,
2
(
20
), pp.
7633
7646
.
47.
Wang
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Sun
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
R.
, and
Gu
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Fabrication of a Novel Polymer-Free Nanostructured Drug-Eluting Coating for Cardiovascular Stents
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
5
(
20
), pp.
10337
10345
.
48.
Nukala
,
R. K.
,
Boyapally
,
H.
,
Slipper
,
I. J.
,
Mendham
,
A. P.
, and
Douroumis
,
D.
,
2010
, “
The Application of Electrostatic Dry Powder Deposition Technology to Coat Drug-Eluting Stents
,”
Pharm. Res.
,
27
(
1
), pp.
72
81
.
49.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
W.
,
Acharya
,
G.
,
Shim
,
Y.-B.
,
Choe
,
E. S.
, and
Lee
,
C. H.
,
2013
, “
Advanced Stent Coating for Drug Delivery and In Vivo Biocompatibility
,”
J. Nanopar. Res.
,
15
(
10
), pp.
1962
1978
.
50.
Hagiwara
,
K.
,
Hasebe
,
T.
, and
Hotta
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Effects of Plasma Treatments on the Controlled Drug Release From Poly(Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate)
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
216
, pp.
318
323
.
51.
Gallo
,
A.
, and
Mani
,
G.
,
2013
, “
A Stent for Co-Delivering Paclitaxel and Nitric Oxide From Abluminal and Luminal Surfaces: Preparation, Surface Characterization, and In Vitro Drug Release Studies
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
279
, pp.
216
232
.
52.
Su
,
L.-C.
,
Chen
,
Y.-H.
, and
Chen
,
M.-C.
,
2013
, “
Dual Drug-Eluting Stents Coated With Multilayers of Hydrophobic Heparin and Sirolimus
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
5
(
24
), pp.
12944
12953
.
53.
Huang
,
Y.
,
Venkatraman
,
S. S.
,
Boey
,
F. Y. C.
,
Lahti
,
E. M.
,
Umashankar
,
P. R.
,
Mohanty
,
M.
,
Arumugam
,
S.
,
Khanolkar
,
L.
, and
Vaishnav
,
S.
,
2010
, “
In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of a Dual Drug-Eluting Stent (DDES)
,”
Biomaterials
,
31
(
15
), pp.
4382
4391
.
54.
Thakkar
,
A.
,
Raval
,
A.
,
Mandal
,
R.
,
Parmar
,
S.
,
Jariwala
,
A.
,
Tailor
,
J.
, and
Mehta
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Development and Evaluation of Drug Eluting Stent Having Biphasic Release From a Single Layer of Biodegradable Polymer
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
7
(
1
), p.
011005
.
55.
Petersen
,
S.
,
Hussner
,
J.
,
Reske
,
T.
,
Grabow
,
N.
,
Senz
,
V.
,
Begunk
,
R.
,
Arbeiter
,
D.
,
Kroemer
,
H. K.
,
Schmitz
,
K.-P.
,
Meyer zu Schwabedissen
,
H. E.
, and
Sternberg
,
K.
,
2013
, “
In Vitro Study of Dual Drug-Eluting Stents With Locally Focused Sirolimus and Atorvastatin Release
,”
J. Mater. Sci. -Mater. Med.
,
24
(
11
), pp.
2589
2600
.
56.
Raval
,
A.
,
Parikh
,
J.
, and
Engineer
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Dexamethasone Eluting Biodegradable Polymeric Matrix Coated Stent for Intravascular Drug Delivery
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
,
88
(
11
), pp.
1479
1484
.
57.
Raval
,
A.
,
Parikh
,
J.
, and
Engineer
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Mechanism and In Vitro Release Kinetic Study of Sirolimus From a Biodegradable Polymeric Matrix Coated Cardiovascular Stent
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
50
(
16
), pp.
9539
9549
.
58.
Engineer
,
C.
,
Parikh
,
J.
, and
Raval
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Copolymer Ratio on Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) From Drug Eluting Coronary Stents
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
,
89
(
3
), pp.
328
334
.
59.
Liu
,
S.-J.
,
Hsiao
,
C.-Y.
,
Chen
,
J.-K.
,
Liu
,
K.-S.
, and
Lee
,
C.-H.
,
2011
, “
In-Vitro Release of Anti-Proliferative Paclitaxel From Novel Balloon-Expandable Polycaprolactone Stents
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. C
,
31
(
5
), pp.
1129
1135
.
60.
Shanshan
,
C.
,
Lili
,
T.
,
Yingxue
,
T.
,
Bingchun
,
Z.
, and
Ke
,
Y.
,
2013
, “
Study of Drug-Eluting Coating on Metal Coronary Stent
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., C
,
33
(
3
), pp.
1476
1480
.
61.
Kim
,
D. M.
,
Lee
,
B. S.
,
Kang
,
J. H.
,
Choi
,
J.
,
Park
,
K.
,
Son
,
T.-I.
,
Jeong
,
M. H.
, and
Han
,
D. K.
,
2011
, “
Fabrication and Controlled Release of Electrosprayed ReoPro-Loaded Metal Surface for Vascular Stent
,”
Macromol. Res.
,
19
(
5
), pp.
501
506
.
62.
Krishna
,
O. D.
,
Jeon
,
O. C.
,
Kim
,
K.
,
Byun
,
Y.
, and
Moon
,
H. T.
,
2010
, “
Drug Release From a Chemically-Anchored PEG/Phospholipid Monolayer Onto Polymer-Coated Metallic Stents
,”
J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.
,
21
(
6
), pp.
789
802
.
63.
Bian
,
H.
,
Zhou
,
S.
,
Liang
,
X.
,
Li
,
Q.
, and
Han
,
W.
,
2012
, “
In Vitro Study of Poly(Ethylene Carbonate) as a Drug-Eluting Stent Coating
,”
Prog. Nat. Sci. Mater. Int.
,
22
(
4
), pp.
295
302
.
64.
Yuk
,
S. H.
,
Oh
,
K. S.
,
Park
,
J.
,
Kim
,
S.-J.
,
Kim
,
J. H.
, and
Kwon
,
I. K.
,
2012
, “
Paclitaxel-Loaded Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide)/Poly(Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) Composite for Stent Coating by Ultrasonic Atomizing Spray
,”
Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.
,
13
(
2
), p.
025005
.
65.
Choi
,
J.
,
Cho
,
S. B.
,
Lee
,
B. S.
,
Joung
,
Y. K.
,
Park
,
K.
, and
Han
,
D. K.
,
2011
, “
Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion of Biodegradable Polymers Coated on Metal Surface by Nanocoupling
,”
Langmuir
,
27
(
23
), pp.
14232
14239
.
66.
Wang
,
G. X.
,
Luo
,
L. L.
,
Yin
,
T. Y.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Jiang
,
T.
,
Ruan
,
C. G.
,
Guidoin
,
R.
,
Chen
,
Y. P.
, and
Guzman
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Ultrasonic Atomization and Subsequent Desolvation for Monoclonal Antibody (mAb) to the Glycoprotein (GP) IIIa Receptor Into Drug Eluting Stent
,”
J. Microencapsul.
,
27
(
2
), pp.
105
114
.
67.
Onuma
,
Y.
, and
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
2011
, “
Bioresorbable Scaffold: The Advent of a New Era in Percutaneous Coronary and Peripheral Revascularization?
,”
Circulation
,
123
(
7
), pp.
779
797
.
68.
Serruys
,
P. W.
,
Onuma
,
Y.
,
Dudek
,
D.
,
Smits
,
P. C.
,
Koolen
,
J.
,
Chevalier
,
B.
,
de Bruyne
,
B.
,
Thuesen
,
L.
,
McClean
,
D.
,
van Geuns
,
R.-J.
,
Windecker
,
S.
,
Whitbourn
,
R.
,
Meredith
,
I.
,
Dorange
,
C.
,
Veldhof
,
S.
,
Hebert
,
K. M.
,
Sudhir
,
K.
,
Garcia-Garcia
,
H. M.
, and
Ormiston
,
J. A.
,
2011
, “
Evaluation of the Second Generation of a Bioresorbable Everolimus-Eluting Vascular Scaffold for the Treatment of de Novo Coronary Artery Stenosis: 12-Month Clinical and Imaging Outcomes
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
,
58
(
15
), pp.
1578
1588
.
69.
Kannan
,
R. Y.
,
Salacinski
,
H. J.
,
Sales
,
K.
,
Butler
,
P.
, and
Seifalian
,
A. M.
,
2005
, “
The Roles of Tissue Engineering and Vascularisation in the Development of Micro-Vascular Networks: A Review
,”
Biomaterials
,
26
(
14
), pp.
1857
1875
.
70.
Kannan
,
R. Y.
,
Salacinski
,
H. J.
,
Ghanavi
,
J.
,
Narula
,
A.
,
Odlyha
,
M.
,
Peirovi
,
H.
,
Butler
,
P. E.
, and
Seifalian
,
A. M.
,
2007
, “
Silsesquioxane Nanocomposites as Tissue Implants
,”
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
,
119
(
6
), pp.
1653
1662
.
71.
Ahmed
,
M.
,
Hamilton
,
G.
, and
Seifalian
,
A. M.
,
2010
, “
Viscoelastic Behaviour of a Small Calibre Vascular Graft Made From a POSS-Nanocomposite
,”
32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
(
EMBS
), Buenos Aires, Aug. 31–Sept. 4, pp.
251
254
.
72.
Cottone
,
R. J.
,
Thatcher
,
G. L.
,
Parker
,
S. P.
,
Hanks
,
L.
,
Kujawa
,
D. A.
,
Rowland
,
S. M.
,
Costa
,
M.
,
Schwartz
,
R. S.
, and
Onuma
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
OrbusNeich Fully Absorbable Coronary Stent Platform Incorporating Dual Partitioned Coatings
,”
EuroIntervention
,
5
(
Suppl. 2009
), pp.
F65
F71
.
73.
Curcio
,
A.
,
Torella
,
D.
, and
Indolfi
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Mechanisms of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Endothelial Regeneration After Vascular Injury and Stenting
,”
Circ. J.
,
75
(
6
), pp.
1287
1296
.
You do not currently have access to this content.