This article details the design, fabrication, and application of a mechatronic arm exoskeleton for firearm aim stabilization (MAXFAS), which senses and damps involuntary tremors in the arm. Human subject experiments were carried out using the device in a simulated shooting and aiming task. Results indicate that MAXFAS reduced arm tremors and improved shooting performance while wearing the device. Residual performance improvement after removing the device and possible training function of MAXFAS will also be discussed.

References

References
1.
Perry
,
J. C.
,
Rosen
,
J.
, and
Burns
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Upper-Limb Powered Exoskeleton Design
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
12
(
4
), pp.
408
417
.
2.
Frisoli
,
A.
,
Salsedo
,
F.
,
Bergamasco
,
M.
,
Rossi
,
B.
, and
Carboncini
,
M. C.
,
2009
, “
A Force-Feedback Exoskeleton for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation in Virtual Reality
,”
Appl. Bionics Biomech.
,
6
(
2
), pp.
115
126
.
3.
Mao
,
Y.
,
Jin
,
X.
,
Dutta
,
G. G.
,
Scholz
,
J. P.
, and
Agrawal
,
S. K.
,
2015
, “
Human Movement Training With Cable Driven Arm Exoskeleton (CAREX)
,”
IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
,
23
(
1
), pp.
84
92
.
4.
Klamroth-Marganska
,
V.
,
Blanco
,
J.
,
Campen
,
K.
,
Curt
,
A.
,
Dietz
,
V.
,
Ettlin
,
T.
,
Felder
,
M.
,
Fellinghauer
,
B.
,
Guidali
,
M.
,
Kollmar
,
A.
,
Luft
,
A.
,
Nef
,
T.
,
Schuster-Amft
,
C.
,
Stahel
,
W.
, and
Riener
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Three-Dimensional, Task-Specific Robot Therapy of the Arm After Stroke: A Multicenter, Parallel-Group Randomised Trial
,”
Lancet Neurol.
,
13
(
2
), pp.
159
166
.
5.
Balasubramanian
,
S.
,
Wei
,
R.
,
Perez
,
M.
,
Shepard
,
B.
,
Koeneman
,
E.
,
Koeneman
,
J.
, and
He
,
J.
,
2008
, “
RUPERT: An Exoskeleton Robot for Assisting Rehabilitation of Arm Functions
,”
Virtual Rehabilitation
, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 25–28, pp
163
167
.
6.
Pledgie
,
S.
,
Barner
,
K. E.
,
Agrawal
,
S. K.
, and
Rahman
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Tremor Suppression Through Impedance Control
,”
IEEE Trans. Rehabil. Eng.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
53
59
.
7.
Rocon
,
E.
, and
Pons
,
J. L.
,
2011
,
Exoskeletons in Rehabilitation Robotics: Tremor Suppression
,
Springer
,
Berlin
.
8.
Tang
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
W.
,
Huang
,
C.
,
Young
,
M.
, and
Hwang
,
I.
,
2006
, “
Postural Tremor and Control of the Upper Limb in Air Pistol Shooters
,”
J. Sports Sci.
,
24
(
14
), pp.
1579
1587
.
9.
Pellegrini
,
B.
, and
Schena
,
F.
,
2005
, “
Characterization of Arm–Gun Movement During Air Pistol Aiming Phase
,”
J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit.
,
45
(
4
), pp.
467
475
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16446677.
10.
Lakie
,
M.
,
2009
, “
The Influence of Muscle Tremor on Shooting Performance
,”
Exp. Physiol.
,
95
(
3
), pp.
441
450
.
11.
La Coss
,
M.
,
1964
, “
Handgun Stabilizer
,”
U.S. Patent No. 3,162,966
https://www.google.com/patents/US3162966.
12.
Willumsen
,
P. L.
,
1991
, “
Handgun Stabilizing Strap
,”
U.S. Patent No. 5,056,253
https://www.google.com/patents/US5056253.
13.
Christensen
,
C.
,
1965
, “
Device for Supporting a Pistol on a Belt
,”
U.S. Patent No. 3,200,528
https://www.google.com/patents/US3200528.
14.
Raethjen
,
J.
,
Pawlas
,
F.
,
Lindemann
,
M.
,
Wenzelburger
,
R.
, and
Deuschl
,
G.
,
2000
, “
Determinants of Physiologic Tremor in a Large Normal Population
,”
Clin. Neurophysiol.
,
111
(
10
), pp.
1825
1837
.
15.
Elble
,
R. J.
,
2000
, “
Essential Tremor Frequency Decreases With Time
,”
Neurology
,
55
(
10
), pp.
1547
1551
.
16.
Hsu
,
P. A.
, and
Cooley
,
B. C.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Exercise on Microsurgical Hand Tremor
,”
Microsurgery
,
23
(
4
), pp.
323
327
.
17.
Humayun
,
M. U.
,
Rader
,
R. S.
,
Pieramici
,
D. J.
,
Awh
,
C. C.
, and
de Juan
,
E.
,
1997
, “
Quantitative Measurement of the Effects of Caffeine and Propranolol on Surgeon Hand Tremor
,”
Arch. Ophthalmol.
,
115
(
3
), pp.
371
374
.
18.
Baechle
,
D. M.
,
Wetzel
,
E. D.
, and
Agrawal
,
S. K.
, “
Design and Fabrication of an Arm Exoskeleton for Aim Stabilization
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2013-13371.
19.
Mao
,
Y.
, and
Agrawal
,
S. K.
,
2012
, “
Design of a Cable-Driven Arm Exoskeleton (CAREX) for Neural Rehabilitation
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
28
(
4
), pp.
922
931
.
20.
Mustafa
,
S. K.
, and
Agrawal
,
S. K.
,
2012
, “
On the Force-Closure Analysis of n-dof Cable Driven Open Chains Based on Reciprocal Screw Theory
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
28
(
1
), pp.
22
28
.
21.
Ball
,
K. A.
,
Best
,
R. J.
, and
Wrigley
,
T. V.
,
2003
, “
Body Sway, Aim Point Fluctuation and Performance in Rifle Shooters: Inter- and Intra-Individual Analysis
,”
J. Sports Sci.
,
21
(
7
), pp.
559
566
.
22.
Riviere
,
C. N.
,
Rader
,
R. S.
, and
Thakor
,
N. V.
,
1998
, “
Adaptive Canceling of Physiological Tremor for Improved Precision in Microsurgery
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
45
(
7
), pp.
839
846
.
23.
Banala
,
S. K.
,
Agrawal
,
S. K.
,
Kim
,
S. H.
, and
Scholz
,
J. P.
,
2010
, “
Novel Gait Adaptation and Neuromotor Training Results Using an Active Leg Exoskeleton
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics.
,
15
(
2
), pp.
216
225
.
You do not currently have access to this content.