In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and testing of a robot for automatically positioning ultrasound (US) imaging catheters. Our system will point US catheters to provide real-time imaging of anatomical structures and working instruments during minimally invasive procedures. Manually navigating US catheters is difficult and requires extensive training in order to aim the US imager at desired targets. Therefore, a four-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) robotic system was developed to automatically navigate US imaging catheters for enhanced imaging. A rotational transmission enables 3DOF for pitch, yaw, and roll of the imager. This transmission is translated by the 4DOF. An accuracy analysis calculated the maximum allowable joint motion error. Rotational joints must be accurate to within 1.5 deg, and the translational joint must be accurate within 1.4 mm. Motion tests then validated the accuracy of the robot. The average resulting errors in positioning of the rotational joints were 0.04–0.22 deg. The average measured backlash was 0.18–0.86 deg. Measurements of average translational positioning and backlash errors were negligible. The resulting joint motion errors were well within the required specifications for accurate robot motion. The output of the catheter was then tested to verify the effectiveness of the handle motions to transmit torques and translations to the catheter tip. The catheter tip was navigated to desired target poses with average error 1.3 mm and 0.71 deg. Such effective manipulation of US imaging catheters will enable better visualization in various procedures ranging from cardiac arrhythmia treatment to tumor removal in urological cases.

References

References
1.
Moscucci
,
M.
,
2013
,
Grossman & Baim's Cardiac Catheterization, Angiography, and Intervention
,
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
2.
Burnett
,
J. M.
,
Meyer
,
M.
,
Bourn
,
D.
, and
Maloney
,
J. D.
,
2005
, “
Intracardiac Echocardiography 101: The Beginner's Guide to ICE Imaging and Cardiac Structure Recognition
,”
EP Lab Digest
,
5
(
5
), p.
4148
.
3.
Loschak
,
P.
,
Brattain
,
L.
, and
Howe
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Automated Pointing of Cardiac Imaging Catheters
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA
), Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6–10, pp.
5794
5799
.
4.
Loschak
,
P. M.
,
Brattain
,
L. J.
, and
Howe
,
R. D.
,
2014
, “
Algorithms for Automated Pointing of Cardiac Imaging Catheters
,”
Computer-Assisted and Robotic Endoscopy
,
Springer
,
Cham, Switzerland
, pp.
99
109
.
5.
Brattain
,
L. J.
,
Loschak
,
P. M.
,
Tschabrunn
,
C. M.
,
Anter
,
E.
, and
Howe
,
R. D.
,
2014
, “
Instrument Tracking and Visualization for Ultrasound Catheter Guided Procedures
,”
Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions
,
Springer
,
Cham, Switzerland
, pp.
41
50
.
6.
Loschak
,
P. M.
,
Tenzer
,
Y.
,
Degirmenci
,
A.
, and
Howe
,
R. D.
,
2016
, “
A 4-DOF Robot for Positioning Ultrasound Imaging Catheters
,”
ASME J. Mech. Rob.
(in press).
7.
Catheter Robotics
,
2012
, “
Amigo Remote Catheter System
,” Catheter Robotics Inc., Mt. Olive, NJ, http://catheterrobotics.com/images/AmigoBrochure.pdf
8.
Corindus
,
2015
, “
CorPath Robotic PCI
,”
Corindus Inc.
,
Waltham, MA
, http://www.corindus.com/
9.
Hansen Medical
,
2015
, “
Sensei Robotic System
,” Hansen Medical Inc., Mountain View, CA, http://hansenmedical.com
10.
Stereotaxis
,
2015
, “
Niobe ES
,”
Stereotaxis Inc.
,
St. Louis, MO
, http://www.stereotaxis.com/products/niobe/
11.
Stereotaxis
,
2015
, “
V-Drive Robotic Navigation System
,”
Stereotaxis Inc.
,
St. Louis, MO
, http://www.stereotaxis.com/products/vdrive/
12.
Creighton
,
F.
,
Ritter
,
R.
,
Viswanathan
,
R.
,
Kastelein
,
N.
,
Garibaldi
,
J.
, and
Flickinger
,
W.
,
2009
, “
Operation of a Remote Medical Navigation System Using Ultrasound Image
,” U.S. Patent No. US2009/0062646 A1.
13.
Webster
,
R. J.
, III
, and
Jones
,
B. A.
,
2010
, “
Design and Kinematic Modeling of Constant Curvature Continuum Robots: A Review
,”
Int. J. Rob. Res.
,
29
(
13
), pp.
1661
1683
.
14.
Khoshnam
,
M.
,
Azizian
,
M.
, and
Patel
,
R. V.
,
2012
, “
Modeling of a Steerable Catheter Based on Beam Theory
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA
), St. Paul, MN, May 14–18, pp.
4681
4686
.
15.
Ganji
,
Y.
,
Janabi-Sharifi
,
F.
, and
Cheema
,
A. N.
,
2009
, “
Robot-Assisted Catheter Manipulation for Intracardiac Navigation
,”
Int. J. Comput. Asst. Radiol. Surg.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
307
315
.
16.
Camarillo
,
D. B.
,
Carlson
,
C. R.
, and
Salisbury
,
J. K.
,
2009
, “
Configuration Tracking for Continuum Manipulators With Coupled Tendon Drive
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
25
(
4
), pp.
798
808
.
You do not currently have access to this content.