Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has gained popularity due to its high dexterity and reduced invasiveness to the patient; however, due to the loss of direct touch of the surgical site, surgeons may be prone to exert larger forces and cause tissue damage. To quantify tool–tissue interaction forces, researchers have tried to attach different kinds of sensors on the surgical tools. This sensor attachment generally makes the tools bulky and/or unduly expensive and may hinder the normal function of the tools; it is also unlikely that these sensors can survive harsh sterilization processes. This paper investigates an alternative method by estimating tool–tissue interaction forces using driving motors' current, and validates this sensorless force estimation method on a 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic surgical grasper prototype. The results show that the performance of this method is acceptable with regard to latency and accuracy. With this tool–tissue interaction force estimation method, it is possible to implement force feedback on existing robotic surgical systems without any sensors. This may allow a haptic surgical robot which is compatible with existing sterilization methods and surgical procedures, so that the surgeon can obtain tool–tissue interaction forces in real time, thereby increasing surgical efficiency and safety.

References

References
1.
Intuitive Surgical, 2015, “
da Vinci Surgery—Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery With the da Vinci Surgical System
,” accessed June 10, 2014, http://www.davincisurgery.com/facts/
2.
Okamura
,
A. M.
,
2009
, “
Haptic Feedback in Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
Curr. Opin. Urol.
,
19
(
1
), pp.
102
107
.
3.
Puangmali
,
P.
,
Althoefer
,
K.
,
Seneviratne
,
L. D.
,
Murphy
,
D.
, and
Dasgupta
,
P.
,
2008
, “
State-of-the-Art in Force and Tactile Sensing for Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
IEEE Sens. J.
,
8
(
4
), pp.
371
381
.
4.
Fischer
,
G. S.
,
Akinbiyi
,
T.
,
Saha
,
S.
,
Zand
,
J.
,
Talamini
,
M.
,
Marohn
,
M.
, and
Taylor
,
R.
,
2006
, “
Ischemia and Force Sensing Surgical Instruments for Augmenting Available Surgeon Information
,”
International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics
(
BioRob 2006
), Pisa, Italy, Feb. 20–22, pp.
1030
1035
.
5.
Menciassi
,
A.
,
Eisinberg
,
A.
,
Carrozza
,
M. C.
, and
Dario
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Force Sensing Microinstrument for Measuring Tissue Properties and Pulse in Microsurgery
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
8
(
1
), pp.
10
17
.
6.
Payne
,
C.
,
Tari
,
H.
,
Marcus
,
H.
, and
Yang
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Hand-Held Microsurgical Forceps With Force-Feedback for Micromanipulation
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA
), Hong Kong, May 3–June 7, pp.
284
289
.
7.
Hammond
,
F. L.
,
Smith
,
M. J.
, and
Wood
,
R. J.
,
2014
, “
Printing Strain Gauges on Surgical Instruments for Force Measurement
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
8
(
3
), p.
030935
.
8.
Gafford
,
G. B.
,
Kesner
,
S.
,
Wood
,
R.
, and
Walsh
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Force-Sensing Surgical Grasper Enabled by Pop-Up Book MEMS
,”
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
(
IROS
), Tokyo, Nov. 3–7, pp.
2552
2558
.
9.
Seibold
,
U.
,
Kubler
,
B.
, and
Hirzinger
,
G.
,
2005
, “
Prototype of Instrument for Minimally Invasive Surgery With 6-Axis Force Sensing Capability
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA 2005
), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp.
18
22
.
10.
Kubler
,
B.
,
Seibold
,
U.
, and
Hirzinger
,
G.
,
2005
, “
Development of Actuated and Sensor Integrated Forceps for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery
,”
Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assisted Surg.
,
1
(
3
), pp.
96
107
.
11.
Gray
,
B. L.
, and
Fearing
,
R. S.
,
1996
, “
A Surface Micromachined Microtactile Sensor Array
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA
), Minneapolis, MN, Apr. 22–28, pp.
1
6
.
12.
Sokhanvar
,
S.
,
Packirisamy
,
M.
, and
Dargahi
,
J.
,
2007
, “
A Multifunctional PVDF-Based Tactile Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
Smart Mater. Struct.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
989
998
.
13.
Fetter
,
E.
,
Biehl
,
M.
, and
Meyer
,
J.
,
1996
, “
Vibrotactile Palpation Instrument for Use in Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
18th Annual International IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society International Conference
(
IEMBS
), Amsterdam, Oct. 31–Nov. 3, pp.
179
180
.
14.
Peirs
,
J.
,
Clijnen
,
J.
,
Reynaerts
,
D.
,
Brussel
,
H. V.
,
Herijgers
,
P.
,
Corteville
,
B.
, and
Boone
,
S.
,
2004
, “
A Micro Optical Force Sensor for Force Feedback During Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery
,”
Sens. Actuators, A
,
115
, pp.
447
455
.
15.
Li
,
X.
,
2001
, “
Real-Time Prediction of Work Piece Errors for a CNC Turning Center, Part 3. Cutting Force Estimation Using Current Sensors
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
17
(
9
), pp.
659
664
.
16.
Jeong
,
Y. H.
, and
Cho
,
D. W.
,
2002
, “
Estimating Cutting Force From Rotating and Stationary Feed Motor Currents on a Milling Machine
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
42
(
14
), pp.
1559
1566
.
17.
Tholey
,
G.
,
Pillarisetti
,
A.
,
Green
,
W.
, and
Desai
,
J. P.
,
2004
, “
Design, Development, and Testing of an Automated Laparoscopic Grasper With 3-D Force Measurement Capability
,”
International Symposium on Medical Simulation
(
ISMS 2004
), Cambridge, MA, June 17–18, pp.
38
48
.
18.
Zhao
,
B.
, and
Nelson
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Sensorless Force Sensing for Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
9
(
4
), p.
041012
.
19.
Zhao
,
B.
, and
Nelson
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Decoupled Cable-Driven Grasper Design Based on Planetary Gear Theory
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
7
(
2
), p.
020918
.
20.
Nelson
,
C.
,
2013
,
A Primer on Engineering Design of Biomedical Devices
, Lulu.com, Raleigh, NC, Chap. 8.
21.
Zhao
,
B.
, and
Nelson
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Sensorless Force Estimation for a 3-DOF Motorized Surgical Grasper
,”
Design of Medical Devices Conference
, Minneapolis, MN, Apr. 13–16, Paper No. DMD 2015–8654.
22.
Zhao
,
B.
, and
Nelson
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Tool-Tissue Forces Estimation for a 3-DOF Robotic Surgical Tool
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC 2015–46344.
23.
Bhagat
,
N. A.
,
2011
, “
Sensing and Cancellation of Tremors in Surgeon's Hands During Microsurgery
,” M.S. thesis,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
,
India
.
24.
Markvicka
,
E. J.
,
2014
, “
Design and Development of a Miniature In Vivo Surgical Robot With Distributed Motor Control for Laparoscopic Single-Site Surgery
,”
M.S. thesis
,
University of Nebraska–Lincoln,
Lincoln, NE
.
25.
Mucksavage
,
P.
,
Kerbl
,
D.
,
Pick
,
D.
,
Lee
,
J.
,
McDougall
,
E.
, and
Louie
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Differences in Grip Forces Among Various Robotic Instruments and da Vinci Surgical Platforms
,”
J. Endourol.
,
25
(
3
), pp.
523
528
.
You do not currently have access to this content.