This paper presents a design approach to systematically synthesize feasible configurations for series–parallel and parallel hybrid transmissions subject to design constraints and required operation modes using a simple planetary gear train (PGT). The configuration synthesis process includes two main steps: (1) assign inputs and output powers to the PGT subject to design constraints by the power arrangement process and (2) assign clutches and brakes to the obtained systems subject to desired operation modes by the clutch arrangement process. By applying the proposed design approach, 9 clutchless and 31 clutched configurations for series–parallel and parallel hybrid transmission systems are synthesized, respectively. For each type of the hybrid systems, we analyzed kinematics and power flows of a new configuration to demonstrate the feasibility of the synthesized systems. The design approach can be used to systematically synthesize future hybrid transmissions with different mechanisms, design constraints, and desired operation modes.

References

References
1.
Berman
,
B.
,
Gelb
,
G. H.
,
Richardson
,
N. A.
, and
Wang
,
T. C.
,
1971
, “
Power Train Using Multiple Power Sources
,” U.S. Patent No. 3,566,717.
2.
Schultz
,
G.
,
Tsai
,
L. W.
, and
Higuchi
,
N.
,
2001
, “
Development of a Novel Parallel Hybrid Transmission
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-0875.
3.
Chen
,
L.
,
Zhu
,
F.
,
Zhang
,
M.
, and
Huo
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Design and Analysis of an Electrical Variable Transmission for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
,”
IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
,
60
(
8
), pp.
2354
2363
.
4.
Tsai
,
L. W.
,
Schultz
,
G.
, and
Higuchi
,
N.
,
2001
, “
A Novel Parallel Hybrid Transmission
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
123
(
2
), pp.
161
168
.
5.
Esmail
,
E. L.
,
2012
, “
Hybrid Transmission for Mobile Robot
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
134
(
2
), p.
021001
.
6.
Zhu
,
F.
,
Chen
,
L.
, and
Yin
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Design and Analysis of a Novel Multimode Transmission for a HEV Using a Single Electric Machine
,”
IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
,
62
(
3
), pp.
1097
1110
.
7.
Lehongre
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Hybrid Engine Transmission Unit Comprising a Double Planetary Gear Train
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,468,175.
8.
Yamauchi
,
Y.
,
Oshidari
,
T.
,
Kargar
,
K.
, and
Pichon
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Hybrid Transmission
,” U.S. Patent No. 7,322,897.
9.
Payri
,
F.
,
Guardiola
,
C.
,
Pla
,
B.
, and
Blanco-Rodriguez
,
D.
,
2014
, “
A Stochastic Method for the Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
,”
Control. Eng. Pract.
,
29
, pp.
257
265
.
10.
Chau
,
K. T.
, and
Wong
,
Y. S.
,
2002
, “
Overview of Power Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
43
(
15
), pp.
1953
1968
.
11.
Conlon
,
B.
,
2005
, “
Comparative Analysis of Single and Combined Hybrid Electrically Variable Transmission Operating Modes
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-1162.
12.
Grewe
,
T.
,
Conlon
,
B.
, and
Holmes
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Defining the General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid Transmission
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2007-01-0273.
13.
Higuchi
,
N.
,
Sunaga
,
Y.
,
Tanaka
,
M.
, and
Shimada
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2013-01-1476.
14.
Yamaguchi
,
J.
,
1997
, “
Toyota Readies Gasoline/Electric Hybrid System
,”
Auto. Eng.
,
105
(
7
), pp.
55
57
.
15.
Nagasaka
,
A.
,
Nada
,
M.
,
Hamada
,
H.
,
Hiramatsu
,
S.
,
Kikuchi
,
Y.
, and
Kato
,
H.
,
1998
, “
Development of the Hybrid/Battery ECU for the Toyota Hybrid System
,”
SAE
Paper No. 981122.
16.
Hata
,
H.
,
Kojima
,
M.
,
Adachi
,
M.
, and
Shimizu
,
T.
,
2006
, “
Power Transmission System
,” U.S. Patent No. 7,081,060.
17.
Nagamatsu
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Power Transmission Apparatus of Hybrid Vehicle
,” U.S. Patent No. 8,142,317.
18.
Ahn
,
K.
,
Cho
,
S.
, and
Lim
,
W.
,
2006
, “
Performance Analysis and Parametric Design of the Dual-Mode Planetary Gear Hybrid Powertrain
,”
Proc. IMechE, Part D
,
220
(
11
), pp.
1601
1614
.
19.
Zhang
,
D.
,
Chen
,
J.
,
Hsieh
,
T.
,
Rancourt
,
J.
, and
Schmidt
,
M. R.
,
2001
, “
Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Two-Mode Electric Variable Transmission
,”
Proc. IMechE, Part D
,
215
(
11
), pp.
1217
1223
.
20.
Holmes
,
A. G.
, and
Schmit
,
M. R.
,
2002
, “
Hybrid Electric Powertrain Including a Two-Mode Electrically Variable Transmission
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,478,705.
21.
Ai
,
X.
,
Mohr
,
T.
, and
Anderson
,
S.
,
2004
, “
An Electro-Mechanical Infinitely Variable Speed Transmission
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2004-01-0354.
22.
Raghavan
,
M.
,
Bucknor
,
N.
, and
Hendrickson
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Electrically Variable Transmission Having Three Interconnected Planetary Gear Sets, Two Clutches and Two Brakes
,” U.S. Patent No. 7,179,187.
23.
Ehsani
,
M.
,
Gao
,
Y.
, and
Miller
,
J. M.
,
2007
, “
Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Architecture and Motor Drives
,”
Proc. IEEE
,
95
(
4
), pp.
719
728
.
24.
Liu
,
J.
, and
Peng
,
H.
,
2010
, “
A Systematic Design Approach for Two Planetary Gear Split Hybrid Vehicles
,”
IEEE Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
48
(
11
), pp.
1395
1412
.
25.
Zhang
,
X. W.
,
Li
,
C. T.
,
Kum
,
D. S.
, and
Peng
,
H.
,
2012
, “
Prius+ and Volt−: Configuration Analysis of Power-Split Hybrid Vehicles With a Single Planetary Gear
,”
IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
,
61
(
8
), pp.
3544
3552
.
26.
Tsai
,
L. W.
, and
Schultz
,
G. A.
, “
A Motor-Integrated Parallel Hybrid Transmission
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
126
(
5
), pp.
889
894
.
27.
Mi
,
C.
,
Masrur
,
M.
, and
Gao
,
W. Z.
,
2011
,
Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Principles and Applications With Practical Perspectives
,
Wiley
,
Singapore
.
You do not currently have access to this content.