This paper presents the design and modeling of an active five-axis compliant micromanipulator whose tip orientation can be independently controlled by large angles about two axes and the tip-position can be controlled in three dimensions. These features enable precise control of the contact point of the tip and the tip–sample interaction forces with three-dimensional nanoscale objects, including those features that are conventionally inaccessible. Control of the tip-motion is realized by means of electromagnetic actuation combined with a novel kinematic and structural design of the micromanipulator, which, in addition, also ensures compatibility with existing high-resolution motion-measurement systems. The design and analysis of the manipulator structure and those of the actuation system are first presented. Quasi-static and dynamic lumped-parameter (LP) models are then derived for the five-axis compliant micromanipulator. Finite element (FE) analysis is employed to validate these models, which are subsequently used to study the effects of tip orientation on the mechanical characteristics of the five-axis micromanipulator. Finally, a prototype of the designed five-axis manipulator is fabricated by means of focused ion-beam milling (FIB).

References

References
1.
Binnig
,
G.
,
Quate
,
C. F.
, and
Gerber
,
C.
,
1986
, “
Atomic Force Microscope
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
,
56
(9), pp.
930
933
.10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.930
2.
Fujita
,
H.
,
2003
,
Micromachines as Tools for Nanotechnology
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin, Germany
.
3.
Florin
,
E.-L.
,
Rief
,
M.
,
Lehmann
,
H.
,
Ludwig
,
M.
,
Dornmair
,
C.
,
Moy
,
V. T.
, and
Gaub
,
H. E.
,
1995
, “
Sensing Specific Molecular Interactions With the Atomic Force Microscope
,”
Biosens. Bioelectron.
,
10
(9–10), pp.
895
901
.10.1016/0956-5663(95)99227-C
4.
Junno
,
T.
,
Deppert
,
K.
,
Montelius
,
L.
, and
Samuelson
,
L.
,
1995
, “
Controlled Manipulation of Nanoparticles With an Atomic Force Microscope
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
66
(26), pp.
3627
3629
.10.1063/1.113809
5.
Horber
,
J. K. H.
, and
Miles
,
M. J.
,
2003
, “
Scanning Probe Evolution in Biology
,”
Science
,
302
(5647), pp.
1002
1005
.10.1126/science.1067410
6.
Griffith
,
J. E.
, and
Grigg
,
D. A.
,
1993
, “
Dimensional Metrology With Scanning Probe Microscopes
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
74
(
9
), pp.
R83
R109
.10.1063/1.354175
7.
Rugar
,
D.
,
Mamin
,
H. J.
, and
Guethner
,
P.
,
1989
, “
Improved Fiber Optic Interferometer for Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
55
(25), pp.
2588
2590
.10.1063/1.101987
8.
Tortonese
,
M.
,
Manalis
,
S. R.
, and
Quate
,
C. F.
,
1993
, “
Atomic Resolution With an Atomic Force Microscope Using Piezo-Resistive Detection
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
62
(8), pp.
834
836
.10.1063/1.108593
9.
Rodriguez
,
T. R.
, and
Garcia
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Theory of Q-Control in Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
82
(26), pp.
4821
4823
.10.1063/1.1584790
10.
Han
,
W.
,
Lindsay
,
S. M.
, and
Jing
,
T.
,
1996
, “
A Magnetically Driven Oscillating Probe Microscope for Operation in Liquids
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
69
(
26
), pp.
4111
4113
.10.1063/1.117835
11.
Indermuhle
,
P. F.
,
Schurmann
,
G.
,
Racine
,
G. A.
, and
de Rooij
,
N. F.
,
1997
, “
Atomic Force Microscopy Using Integrated Tips and Piezoelectric Layers for Actuation and Detection
,”
J. Micromech. Microeng
,
7
(3), pp.
218
220
.10.1088/0960-1317/7/3/036
12.
Pedrak
,
R.
,
Ivanov
,
Tzv.
,
Ivanova
,
K.
,
Gotszalk
,
T.
,
Abedinov
,
N.
,
Rangelow
,
I. W.
,
Edinger
,
K.
,
Tomerov
,
E.
,
Schenkel
,
T.
, and
Hudek
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Micromachined Atomic Force Microscopy Sensor With Integrated Piezoresistive Sensor and Thermal Bimorph Actuator for High-Speed Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy Phase-Imaging in Higher Eigenmodes
,”
J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B
,
21
(6), pp.
3102
3107
.10.1116/1.1614252
13.
Florin
,
E.-L.
,
Radmacher
,
M.
,
Fleck
,
B.
, and
Gaub
,
H. E.
,
1994
, “
Atomic Force Microscope With Magnetic Force Modulation
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
,
6
(
3
), pp.
639
643
.10.1063/1.1145130
14.
Murayama
,
K.
,
Gonda
,
S.
,
Koyanagi
,
H.
,
Terasawa
,
T.
, and
Hosaka
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Side-Wall Measurement Using Tilt-Scanning Method in Atomic Force Microscope
,”
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1
,
45
(
6B
), pp.
5423
5428
.10.1143/JJAP.45.5423
15.
Nyssonen
,
D.
,
Landstein
,
L.
, and
Coombs
,
E.
,
1991
, “
Two Dimensional Atomic Force Microprobe Trench Metrology System
,”
J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B
,
9
(
6
), pp.
3612
3616
.10.1116/1.585855
16.
Martin
,
Y.
, and
Wickramasinghe
,
H. K.
,
1994
, “
Method for Imaging Sidewalls by Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
64
(
19
), pp.
2498
2500
.10.1063/1.111578
17.
Jayanth
,
G. R.
,
Jhiang
,
S. M.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2008
, “
Two-Axis Probing System for Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Rev. Sci. Intrum.
,
79
(2), p.
023705
.10.1063/1.2841805
18.
Jayanth
,
G. R.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2010
, “
Modeling and Design of a Magnetically Actuated Two-Axis Compliant Micromanipulator for Nanomanipulation
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
15
(3), pp.
360
370
.10.1109/TMECH.2009.2026170
19.
Jayanth
,
G. R.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2010
, “
Control of Two-Axis Micromanipulator-Based Scanning Probe System for 2.5D Nanometrology
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
15
(5), pp.
661
670
.10.1109/TMECH.2009.2031595
20.
Jayanth
,
G. R.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2012
, “
Tip Motion Control and Scanning of a Reorientable Manipulator With Axially Located Tip
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
17
(5), pp.
801
810
.10.1109/TMECH.2011.2136382
21.
Jayanth
,
G. R.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2013
, “
Two Axis Force Sensing and Control of a Reorientable Scanning Probe
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
18
(2), pp.
687
696
.10.1109/TMECH.2012.2183145
22.
Timoshenko
,
S.
, and
Young
,
D. H.
,
1962
,
Elements of Strength of Materials
,
D. Van Nostrand Company
, Princeton,
NJ
, Chap. 4.
23.
Meyer
,
G.
, and
Amer
,
N. M.
,
1988
, “
Novel Optical Approach to Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
53
(12), pp.
1045
1047
.10.1063/1.100061
24.
Kim
,
J. H.
,
Kuo
,
S. K.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2005
, “
An Ultra Precision Six-Axis Visual Servo Control System
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
21
(
5
), pp.
985
993
.10.1109/TRO.2005.847571
25.
Kim
,
J. H.
, and
Menq
,
C. H.
,
2008
, “
Visually Served 3D Alignment of Multiple Objects With Subnanometer Precision
,”
IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.
,
7
(3), pp.
321
330
.10.1109/TNANO.2007.914997
26.
Murray
,
R. M.
,
Li
,
Z.
, and
Sastry
,
S. S.
,
1994
,
A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation
,
CRC
, Boca Raton,
FL
, Chap. 2.
27.
Griffiths
,
D. J.
,
1999
,
Introduction to Electrodynamics
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Upper Saddle River, NJ
.
28.
Koseki
,
Y.
,
Tanikawa
,
T.
,
Koyachi
,
N.
, and
Arai
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Kinematic Analysis of Translational 3-DOF Micro-Parallel Mechanism Using Matrix Method
,”
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
(
IROS 2000
), Takamatsu, Japan, October 31–November 5,
pp. 786–792
.10.1109/IROS.2000.894700
You do not currently have access to this content.