This paper describes a novel, general methodology for designing a parallel, passive-assist device to augment an active system using optimization based on a known maneuver of the active system. Implementation of the passive-assist device can result in an improvement in system performance with respect to efficiency, reliability, and/or utility. The methodology is demonstrated with a torsional spring designed to minimize energy consumption of a prototypical unmanned ground vehicle robot arm. Initial results indicate that this procedure can reduce maximum required torque by ~50% and energy consumed by as much as 25%. The proposed method is experimentally verified and compared to other state-of-the-art design approaches.

References

References
1.
Bryan
,
C.
,
Grenwalt
,
M.
, and
Stienecker
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Energy Consumption Reduction in Industrial Robots
,”
Proceedings ASEE North Central Sectional Conference
.
2.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007, eGRID,
http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/egrid/index.html
3.
Gutowski
,
T.
,
Dahmus
,
J.
, and
Thiriez
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Electrical Energy Requirements for Manufacturing Processes
,”
Proceedings of 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering
.
4.
Herder
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Energy-Free Systems: Theory, Conception, and Design of Statically Balanced Spring Mechanisms
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Delft University of Technology
, Delft, Netherlands.
5.
Li
,
S. C.
,
Qiu
,
J. X.
, and
Zhu
,
J. Y.
,
1990
, “
The Counterbalance Design of the Articulated Robot Arms
,”
CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol.
,
39
(
1
), pp.
455
458
.10.1016/S0007-8506(07)61095-6
6.
Akeel
,
H. A.
,
1987
,
Robot With Counterbalance Mechanism having Multiple Attachment Locations. U. S. No. Patent 4653975
.
7.
Gorman
,
R. H.
, and
Aggarwal
,
R. N.
,
1988
, “
Industrial Robot Having Counterbalanced Arms
,” U. S. Patent No. 4768918.
8.
Krut
,
S.
,
Benoit
,
M.
,
Dombre
,
E.
, and
Pierrot
,
F.
,
2010
, “
MoonWalker, a Lower Limb Exoskeleton Able to Sustain Bodyweight Using a Passive Force Balancer
,”
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
, pp.
2215
2220
.
9.
Lu
,
Q.
,
McAvoy
,
J.
, and
Ma
,
O.
,
2009
, “
A Simulation Study of a Reduced-Gravity Simulator for Simulating Human Jumping and Walking in a Reduced-Gravity Environment
,”
Proceedings of ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC)
, pp.
1675
1682
.
10.
Frey
,
M.
,
Colombo
,
G.
,
Vaglio
,
M.
,
Bucher
,
R.
,
Jorg
,
M.
, and
Riener
,
R.
,
2006
, “
A Novel Mechatronic Body Weight Support System
,”
IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
311
321
.10.1109/TNSRE.2006.881556
11.
Walsh
,
C. J.
,
Pasch
,
K.
, and
Herr
,
H.
,
2006
, “
An Autonomous, Underactuated Exoskeleton for Load-Carrying Augmentation
,”
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, pp.
1410
1415
.
12.
Mahalingam
,
S.
, and
Sharan
,
A.
,
1986
, “
The Optimal Balancing of the Robotic Manipulators
,”
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
, Vol.
3
, pp.
828
835
.
13.
Lin
,
P.-Y.
,
2012
, “
Design of Statically Balanced Spatial Mechanisms With Spring Suspensions
,”
ASME J. Mech. Rob.
,
4
(
2
), p.
021015
.10.1115/1.4006522
14.
Deepak
,
S. R.
, and
Ananthasuresh
,
G. K.
,
2012
, “
Perfect Static Balance of Linkages by Addition of Springs But Not Auxiliary Bodies
,”
ASME J. Mech. Rob.
,
4
(
2
), p.
021014
.10.1115/1.4006521
15.
Endo
,
G.
,
Yamada
,
H.
,
Yajima
,
A.
,
Ogata
,
M.
, and
Hirose
,
S.
,
2010
, “
A Passive Weight Compensation Mechanism With a Non-Circular Pulley and a Spring
,”
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
, pp.
3843
3848
.
16.
McMahon
,
T. A.
,
1984
,
Muscles, Reflexes, and Locomotion
,
Princeton University
,
Princeton, NJ.
17.
Anderson
,
F. C.
, and
Pandy
,
M. G.
,
1993
, “
Storage and Utilization of Elastic Strain Energy During Jumping
,”
J. Biomech.
,
26
(
12
), pp.
1413
1427
.10.1016/0021-9290(93)90092-S
18.
Pratt
,
G.
, and
Williamson
,
M.
,
1995
, “
Series Elastic Actuators
,”
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Vol.
1
, pp.
399
406
.
19.
Hutter
,
M.
,
Remy
,
C.
,
Hoepflinger
,
M.
, and
Siegwart
,
R.
,
2011
, “
High Compliant Series Elastic Actuation for the Robotic Leg ScarlETH
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR)
.
20.
Vanderborght
,
B.
,
Van Ham
,
R.
,
Lefeber
,
D.
,
Sugar
,
T. G.
, and
Hollander
,
K. W.
,
2009
, “
Comparison of Mechanical Design and Energy Consumption of Adaptable, Passive-compliant Actuators
,”
Int. J. Robot. Res.
,
28
(
1
), pp.
90
103
.10.1177/0278364908095333
21.
Yang
,
T.
,
Westervelt
,
E.
,
Schmiedeler
,
J.
, and
Bockbrader
,
R.
,
2008
, “
Design and Control of a Planar Bipedal Robot ERNIE With Parallel Knee Compliance
,”
Auton. Rob.
,
25
(
4
), pp.
317
330
.10.1007/s10514-008-9096-5
22.
Harper
,
K.
,
Berkemeier
,
M.
, and
Grace
,
S.
,
1997
, “
Decreasing the Energy Costs of Swimming Robots Through Passive Elastic Elements
,”
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
, Vol.
3
, pp.
1839
1844
.
23.
Mettin
,
U.
,
La Hera
,
P. X.
,
Freidovich
,
L. B.
, and
Shiriaev
,
A. S.
,
2010
, “
Parallel Elastic Actuators as a Control Tool for Preplanned Trajectories of Underactuated Mechanical Systems
,”
Int. J. Robot. Res.
,
29
(
9
), pp.
1186
1198
.10.1177/0278364909344002
24.
Radaelli
,
G.
,
Gallego
,
J. A.
, and
Herder
,
J. L.
,
2011
, “
An Energy Approach to Static Balancing of Systems With Torsion Stiffness
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
133
(
9
), p.
091006
.10.1115/1.4004704
25.
Nassiraei
,
A. A. F.
, and
Ishii
,
K.
,
2007
, “
Concept of Intelligent Mechanical Design for Autonomous Mobile Robots
,”
J. Bionic Eng.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
217
226
.
26.
Chalhoub
,
N. G.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
1986
, “
Dynamic Simulation of a Leadscrew Driven Flexible Robot Arm and Controller
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
,
108
(
2
), pp.
119
126
.10.1115/1.3143753
27.
Chalhoub
,
N. G.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
1987
, “
Control of a Flexible Robot Arm: Experimental and Theoretical Results
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
,
109
(
4
), pp.
299
309
.10.1115/1.3143859
28.
Slocum
,
A. H.
, and
Weber
,
A. C.
,
2003
, “
Precision Passive Mechanical Alignment of Wafers
,”
J. Microelectromech. Syst.
,
12
(
6
), pp.
826
834
.10.1109/JMEMS.2003.820289
29.
Yeh
,
T. J.
, and
Wu
,
F. K.
,
2009
, “
Modeling and Robust Control of Worm-Gear Driven Systems
,”
Simul. Modell. Pract. Theory
,
17
(
5
), pp.
767
777
.10.1016/j.simpat.2009.01.002
30.
Brown
,
W. R.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
2011
. “
A Passive-Assist Design Approach for Improved Reliability and Efficiency of Robot Arms
,”
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
, pp.
4927
4934
.
31.
Reyer
,
J. A.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2002
, “
Combined Optimal Design and Control With Application to an Electric DC Motor
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
124
(
2
), pp.
183
191
.10.1115/1.1460904
32.
Åström
,
K. J.
,
Apkarian
,
J.
, and
Lacheray
,
H.
,
2006
,
DC Motor Control Trainer Instructor Workbook
,
Quanser Inc.
, 119 Spy Court, Markham, ON L3R 5H6 Canada.
33.
Brown
,
W. R.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
2012
, “
Experimental Verification of a Passive-Assist Design Approach for Improved Reliability and Efficiency of Robot Arms
,”
Proceedings of ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC)
.
34.
Li
,
S.
,
Kolmanovsky
,
I. V.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
2012
, “
Distributed Supervisory Controller Design for Battery Swapping Modularity in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
,
134
(
4
), p. 041013.10.1115/1.4006214
35.
Phadke
,
M.
,
1989
,
Quality Engineering Using Robust Design
,
Prentice Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
36.
Brown
,
W. R.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
2013
, “
Robust Maneuver Based Design of a Passive-Assist Device for Augmenting Active Robotic Joints
,”
Proceedings of ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC)
.
37.
Brown
,
W. R.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
,
2013
, “
Maneuver Based Design of a Passive-Assist Device for Augmenting Linear Motion Drives
,”
Proceedings American Control Conference (ACC)
.
You do not currently have access to this content.