Two novel architectures of planar spring-loaded cable-loop-driven parallel mechanisms that do not require actuation redundancy are introduced in this paper. In order to avoid redundancy in the cable-driven parallel mechanisms and require only N actuators to control N-DOF motion, a new spring-loaded cable-loop-driven mechanism is proposed. By attaching springs to the cable loops, two degrees of freedom can be controlled using only two actuators and spools are eliminated in this mechanism. Therefore, the control method can be simplified compared with conventional cable-driven mechanisms making use of spools and actuation redundancy. The mechanisms can be actuated using either linear sliders or rotary actuators driving the motion of a cable or belt loop. Kinematic and static analyses are presented for the new architectures. It is verified that the cables and springs can be kept in tension within a certain workspace. Results of numerical simulations are also given in order to provide insight into the design issues.

References

References
1.
Albus
,
J.
,
Bostelman
,
R.
, and
Dagalakis
,
N.
, 1993, “
The NIST Robocrane
,”
J. Rob. Syst.
,
10
(
5
), pp.
709
724
.
2.
Kawamura
,
S.
,
Choe
,
W.
,
Tanaka
,
S.
, and
Pandian
,
S.
, 1995, “
Development of an Ultrahigh Speed Robot FALCON Using Wire Drive System
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Nagoya, Japan, Vol.
1
, pp.
215
220
.
3.
Cone
,
L. L.
, 1985, “
Skycam, an Aerial Robotic Camera System
,”
Byte
,
10
, pp.
122
132
.
4.
Fang
,
S.
,
Franitza
,
D.
,
Torlo
,
M.
,
Bekes
,
F.
, and
Hiller
,
M.
, 2004, “
Motion Control of a Tendon-Based Parallel Manipulator Using Optimal Tension Distribution
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
561
568
.
5.
Mayhew
,
D.
,
Bachrach
,
B.
,
Rymer
,
W. Z.
, and
Beer
,
R. F.
, 2005, “
Development of the MACARM—A Novel Cable Robot for Upper Limb Neurorehabilitation
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics
, Chicago, IL, pp.
299
302
.
6.
Heyden
,
T.
, and
Woernle
,
C.
, 2006, “
Dynamics and Flatness-Based Control of a Kinematically Undetermined Cable Suspension Manipulator
,”
Multibody Syst. Dyn.
,
16
, pp.
155
177
.
7.
Ottaviano
,
E.
,
Ceccarelli
,
M.
, and
Palmucci
,
F.
, 2009, “
An Application of CaTraSys, a Cable-Based Parallel Measuring System for an Experimental Characterization of Human Walking
,”
Robotica(2010)
,
28
, pp.
119
133
.
8.
Bosscher
,
P.
,
Williams
,
R. L.
, II
, and
Tummino
,
M.
, 2005, “
A Concept for Rapidly-Deployable Cable Robot Search and Rescue Systems
,”
Proceedings of ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Long Beach, CA.
9.
Bouchard
,
S.
, and
Gosselin
,
C. M.
, 2007, “
Workspace Optimization of a Very Large Cable-Driven Parallel Mechanism for a Radiotelescope Application
,”
Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Las Vegas, NV.
10.
Ottaviano
,
E.
,
Ceccarelli
,
M.
, and
De Ciantis
,
M.
, 2007, “
A 4-4 Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator for an Application in Hospital Environment
,”
Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
, Athens, Greece.
11.
Bosscher
,
P.
,
Williams
,
R. L.
, II
,
Sebastian Bryson
,
L.
, and
Castro-Lacouture
,
D.
, 2007, “
Cable-Suspended Robotic Contour Crafting System
,”
Autom. Constr.
,
17
, pp.
45
55
.
12.
Wischnitzer
,
Y.
,
Shvalb
,
N.
, and
Shoham
,
M.
, 2008, “
Wire-Driven Parallel Robot: Permitting Collisions Between Wires
,”
Int. J. Robot. Res.
,
27
, pp.
1007
1026
.
13.
Kawamura
,
S.
,
Ida
,
M.
,
Wada
,
T.
, and
Wu
,
J. L.
, 1995, “
Development of a Virtual Sports Machine Using a Wire Drive System
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
,
pp.
111
116
.
14.
Morizono
,
T.
,
Kurahashi
,
K.
, and
Kawamura
,
S.
, 1997, “
Realization of a Virtual Sports Training System With Parallel Wire Mechanism
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Albuquerque, NM, pp.
3025
3030
.
15.
Maeda
,
K.
,
Tadokoro
,
S.
,
Takamori
,
T.
,
Hiller
,
M.
, and
Verhoeven
,
R.
, 1999, “
On Design of a Redundant Wire-Driven Parallel Robot WARP Manipulator
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Detroit, MI, pp.
895
900
.
16.
Tadokoro
,
S.
, and
Matsushima
,
T.
, 2001, “
A Parallel Cable-Driven Motion Base for Virtual Acceleration
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Maui, HI, pp.
1700
1705
.
17.
Merlet
,
J. P.
, 2008, “
Kinematics of the Wire-Driven Parallel Robot MARIONET Using Linear Actuators
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Pasadena, CA, pp.
3857
3862
.
18.
Liu
,
H.
, and
Gosselin
,
C.
, 2009, “
A Planar Closed-Loop Cable-Driven Parallel Mechanism
,”
Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng.
,
33
(
4
), pp.
587
596
.
19.
Yanai
,
N.
,
Yamamoto
,
M.
, and
Mohri
,
A.
, 2002, “
Feedback Control for Wire-Suspended Mechanism With Exact Linearization
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp.
2213
2218
.
20.
Gosselin
,
C.
, and
Bouchard
,
S.
, 2010, “
A Gravity-Powered Mechanism for Extending the Workspace of a Cable-Driven Parallel Mechanism: Application to the Appearance Modelling of Objects
”,
Int. J. Autom. Technol.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
372
379
.
21.
Pusey
,
J.
,
Fattah
,
A.
,
Agrawal
,
S.
, and
Messina
,
E.
, 2004, “
Design and Workspace Analysis of a 6-6 Cable-Suspended Parallel Robot
,”
Mech. Mach. Theory
,
39
(
7
), pp.
761
778
.
22.
Russell
,
R. A.
, 1994, “
A Robotic System for Performing Sub-Millimeter Grasping and Manipulation Tasks
,”
Rob. Auton. Syst.
,
13
, pp.
209
218
.
23.
Gouttefarde
,
M.
,
Merlet
,
J.-P.
, and
Daney
,
D.
, 2006, “
Determination of the Wrench-Closure Workspace of 6-DOF Parallel Cable-Driven Mechanisms
,”
Advances in Robot Kinematics
,
Springer
,
New York
, pp.
315
322
.
24.
Alikhani
,
A.
,
Behzadipour
,
S.
,
Sadough Vanini
,
S. A.
, and
Alasty
,
A.
, 2009, “
Workspace Analysis of a Three DOF Cable-Driven Mechanism
,”
ASME J. Mech. Rob.
,
1
(
4
),
041005
.
25.
Liu
,
H.
,
Gosselin
,
C.
, and
Laliberté
,
T.
, 2010, “
A Planar Spring-Loaded Cable-Loop-Driven Parallel Mechanism
,”
Proceedings of IDETC/CIE
, Montreal, Canada, pp.
271
280
.
26.
Gaullina
,
P.
, and
Rosati
,
G.
, 2002, “
Manipulability of a Planar Wire Driven Haptic Device
,”
Mech. Mach. Theory
,
37
, pp.
215
228
.
27.
Kashdan
,
L.
,
Seepersad
,
C.
,
Haberman
,
M.
, and
Wilson
,
P. S.
, “
Design, Fabrication and Evaluation of Negative Stiffness Elements
,” http://www.me.utexas.edu/~ppmdlab/files/Kashdan_Paper11_FINAL.pdf.
You do not currently have access to this content.