Abstract

In this work, an End-Of-Life (EOL) model is included in the Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology to account for the energy burdens and credits stemming from a vehicle's EOL processing phase and balance them against the vehicle's functional requirements and production and use phase energies. The substitution with a correction factor allocation method is used to model the contribution of recycling to the EOL phase's energy. The methodology is illustrated through the optimisation of the design of a simplified vehicle sub-system. For the latter, multiple recycling scenarios with varying levels of assumed recycling induced material property degradation were built, and their impact on the vehicle sub-system's optimal solutions was compared to that of scenarios based on landfilling and incineration with energy recovery. The results show that the vehicle sub-system's optimal designs are significantly dependent on the EOL scenario considered. In particular, the optimal designs associated with the recycling scenarios are on average substantially heavier, and less life cycle energy demanding, than their landfilling or incineration with energy recovery-related counterparts; thus, demonstrating how the inclusion of EOL modelling in the LCEO methodology can significantly alter material use patterns, thereby effecting the very mechanisms enabling the embodiment of the resulting life cycle energy optimal designs.

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