Circular economy (CE) is being increasingly accepted as a promising sustainable business model, supporting waste minimization through product life cycles. The product end-of-use (EOU) stage is the key to circulate materials and components into a new life cycle, rather than direct disposal. The economic viability of recycling EOU products is significantly affected by designers' decisions and largely determined during product design. Low economic return of EOU value recovery is a major barrier to overcome. To address this issue, a design method to facilitate EOU product value recovery is proposed. First, product EOU scenarios are determined by optimization of EOU component flows. The EOU scenario depicts which modules (groups of components) will be allocated for reuse, recycling, or disposal, the order of joint detachment (the joints for modules connection), and recovery profit. Second, in the given study, bottlenecks, improvement opportunities, and design suggestions will be identified and provided following the EOU scenario analysis. Pareto analysis is used for ranking joints, according to their detachment cost and for indicating which joints are the most suitable for replacement. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is employed to select the best joint candidate with trade-off among criteria from the perspective of disassembly. In addition, disposal and recycling modules are checked to eliminate hazardous material and increase material compatibility. A value-based recycling indicator is developed to measure recyclability of the modules and evaluate design suggestions for material selection. Finally, based on heuristics, the most valuable and reusable modules will be selected for reconfiguration so that they can be easily accessed and disassembled. A hard disk drive is used as a case study to illustrate the method.

References

References
1.
Ma
,
J.
, and
Kremer
,
G. E. O.
,
2016
, “
A Systematic Literature Review of Modular Product Design (MPD) From the Perspective of Sustainability
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
86
(
5–8
), pp.
1509
1539
.
2.
Appelqvist
,
P.
,
Lehtonen
,
J. M.
, and
Kokkonen
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Modelling in Product and Supply Chain Design: Literature Survey and Case Study
,”
J. Manuf. Technol. Manage.
,
15
(
7
), pp.
675
686
.
3.
Boothroyd
,
G.
, and
Alting
,
L.
,
1992
, “
Design for Assembly and Disassembly
,”
CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol.
,
41
(
2
), pp.
625
636
.
4.
Umeda
,
Y.
,
Takata
,
S.
,
Kimura
,
F.
,
Tomiyama
,
T.
,
Sutherland
,
J. W.
,
Kara
,
S.
, and
Duflou
,
J. R.
,
2012
, “
Toward Integrated Product and Process Life Cycle Planning—An Environmental Perspective
,”
CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol.
,
61
(
2
), pp.
681
702
.
5.
Ramani
,
K.
,
Ramanujan
,
D.
,
Bernstein
,
W. Z.
,
Zhao
,
F.
,
Sutherland
,
J.
,
Handwerker
,
C.
, and
Thurston
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Integrated Sustainable Life Cycle Design: A Review
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
132
(
9
), p.
091004
.
6.
Dowie
,
T.
, and
Simon
,
M.
,
1994
, “
Guidelines for Designing for Disassembly and Recycling
,” Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK, Report No. DDR/TR18.
7.
Rose
,
C. M.
,
Stevels
,
A.
, and
Ishii
,
K.
,
2000
, “
A New Approach to End-of-Life Design Advisor (ELDA)
,”
IEEE
International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment
, San Francisco, CA, May 10, pp.
99
104
.
8.
Allione
,
C.
,
De Giorgi
,
C.
,
Lerma
,
B.
, and
Petruccelli
,
L.
,
2012
, “
From Ecodesign Products Guidelines to Materials Guidelines for a Sustainable Product. Qualitative and Quantitative Multicriteria Environmental Profile of a Material
,”
Energy
,
39
(
1
), pp.
90
99
.
9.
Sakao
,
T.
,
2007
, “
A QFD-Centred Design Methodology for Environmentally Conscious Product Design
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res
,
45
(
18–19
), pp.
4143
4162
.
10.
Younesi
,
M.
, and
Roghanian
,
E.
,
2015
, “
A Framework for Sustainable Product Design: A Hybrid Fuzzy Approach Based on Quality Function Deployment for Environment
,”
J. Cleaner Prod
,
108
, pp.
385
394
.
11.
Mangold
,
J. A.
,
2013
, “
Evaluating the End-of-Life Phase of Consumer Electronics: Methods and Tools to Improve Product Design and Material Recovery
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
12.
Yang
,
S. S.
,
Nasr
,
N.
,
Ong
,
S. K.
, and
Nee
,
A. Y. C.
,
2015
, “
Designing Automotive Products for Remanufacturing From Material Selection Perspective
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
153
, pp.
570
579
.
13.
Sabaghi
,
M.
,
Mascle
,
C.
, and
Baptiste
,
P.
,
2016
, “
Evaluation of Products at Design Phase for an Efficient Disassembly at End-of-Life
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
116
, pp.
177
186
.
14.
Takeuchi
,
S.
, and
Saitou
,
K.
,
2005
, “
Design for Product-Embedded Disassembly With Maximum Profit
,”
IEEE
International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing
, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 12–14, pp.
199
206
.
15.
Hassan
,
M. F.
,
Saman
,
M. Z. M.
,
Sharif
,
S.
, and
Omar
,
B.
,
2016
, “
Sustainability Evaluation of Alternative Part Configurations in Product Design: Weighted Decision Matrix and Artificial Neural Network Approach
,”
Clean Technol. Environ. Policy
,
18
(
1
), pp.
63
79
.
16.
Lee
,
S. G.
,
Lye
,
S. W.
, and
Khoo
,
M. K.
,
2001
, “
A Multi-Objective Methodology for Evaluating Product End-of-Life Options and Disassembly
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
148
156
.
17.
Ma
,
J.
, and
Kremer
,
G. E.
,
2015
, “
A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach to Determine Product Component End-of-Life Option From the Views of Sustainability and Designer's Perception
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
108
, pp.
289
300
.
18.
Li
,
J. Z.
,
Zhang
,
H. C.
,
Gonzalez
,
M. A.
, and
Yu
,
S.
,
2008
, “
A Multi-Objective Fuzzy Graph Approach for Modular Formulation Considering End of Life Issues
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
46
(
14
), pp.
4011
4033
.
19.
Remery
,
M.
,
Mascle
,
C.
, and
Agard
,
B.
,
2012
, “
A New Method for Evaluating the Best Product End-of-Life Strategy During the Early Design Phase
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
23
(
6
), pp.
419
441
.
20.
Cong
,
L.
,
Zhao
,
F.
, and
Sutherland
,
J. W.
,
2017
, “
Integration of Dismantling Operations Into a Value Recovery Plan for Circular Economy
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
149
, pp.
378
386
.
21.
Jeandin
,
T.
, and
Mascle
,
C.
,
2016
, “
A New Model to Select Fasteners in Design for Disassembly
,”
Procedia CIRP
,
40
, pp.
425
430
.
22.
Ghazilla
,
R. A. R.
,
Taha
,
Z.
,
Yusoff
,
S.
,
Rashid
,
S. H. A.
, and
Sakundarini
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Development of Decision Support System for Fastener Selection in Product Recovery Oriented Design
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
70
(
5–8
), pp.
1403
1413
.
23.
Güngör
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Evaluation of Connection Types in Design for Disassembly (DFD) Using Analytic Network Process
,”
Comput. Ind. Eng.
,
50
(
1–2
), pp.
35
54
.
24.
Kondo
,
Y.
,
Deguchi
,
K.
,
Hayashi
,
Y. I.
, and
Obata
,
F.
,
2003
, “
Reversibility and Disassembly Time of Part Connection
,”
Resour. Conserv. Recycl.
,
38
(
3
), pp.
175
184
.
25.
ECMA,
2008
, “
International. Environmental Design Considerations for ICT and CE Products
,” European Computer Manufacturers Association, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No.
ECMA-341
.https://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-341.pdf
26.
Castro
,
M. B.
,
Remmerswaal
,
J. A. M.
,
Brezet
,
J. C.
,
Van Schaik
,
A.
, and
Reuter
,
M. A.
,
2005
, “
A Simulation Model of the Comminution–Liberation of Recycling Streams: Relationships Between Product Design and the Liberation of Materials During Recycling
,”
Int. J. Miner. Process.
,
75
(
3–4
), pp.
255
281
.
27.
Bhuie
,
A. K.
,
Ogunseitan
,
O. A.
,
Saphores
,
J. D.
, and
Shapiro
,
A. A.
,
2004
, “
Environmental and Economic Trade-Offs in Consumer Electronic Products Recycling: A Case Study of Cell Phones and Computers
,”
IEEE
International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment
, Scottsdale, AZ, May 10–13, pp.
74
79
.
28.
EPA
,
2016
, “
Advancing Sustainable Materials Man- Agement: 2014 Fact Sheet
,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Report No. EPA530-F-18-004.
29.
Yan
,
G.
,
Xue
,
M.
, and
Xu
,
Z.
,
2013
, “
Disposal of Waste Computer Hard Disk Drive: Data Destruction and Resources Recycling
,”
Waste Manage. Resour.
,
31
(
6
), pp.
559
567
.
You do not currently have access to this content.