The user experience of a product is recognized as having an increasing importance in particular in consumer products. Current approaches to designing user experiences are not easily translated to languages that a computer can understand. This paper examines a particular aspect of user experience, namely perception of the aesthetics of a product, to formalize this to rules, which are embedded into a tool to generate design. Investigating the perception of consumers is key to designing for their aesthetic preferences. Previous research has shown that consumers and designers often perceive the same products differently. This paper aims to embed rules on perception into a tool to support designers during design synthesis. Aesthetic design rules connecting perceptions with aesthetic features were integrated into a set grammar and a parametric modeling tool, and applied to the particular case of vases. The generated tool targeted the creation of vases with the perception of beautiful, elegant, and exciting. Results show that it is possible to generate beautiful, elegant, and exciting vases following the three aesthetic design rules, i.e., tall, simple, and curvy. The main contribution of this paper is the method used to incorporate information on perception into the set grammar and the parametric model. The tool is additionally proposed for supporting designers during design synthesis of shapes. The results are valid for vases but the method can be applied to other perceptions and product categories.

References

References
1.
Weinberg
,
P.
, and
Gottwald
,
W.
,
1982
, “
Impulsive Consumer Buying as a Result of Emotions
,”
J. Bus. Res.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
43
57
.
2.
Kotler
,
P.
, and
Rath
,
G. A.
,
1984
, “
Design: A Powerful but Neglected Strategic Tool
,”
J. Bus. Strategy
,
5
(
2
), pp.
16
21
.
3.
Ulrich
,
K. T.
,
2006
, “
Aesthetics in Design
,”
Design: Creation of Artifacts in Society
,
Pontificia Press
, Quito, Ecuador.
4.
Bloch
,
P. H.
,
1995
, “
Seeking the Ideal Form: Product Design and Consumer Response
,”
J. Mark
,
59
(
3
), pp.
16
29
.
5.
Govers
,
P. C. M.
, and
Schoormans
,
J. P. L.
,
2005
, “
Product Personality and Its Influence on Consumer Preference
,”
J. Consum. Mark
,
22
(
4
), pp.
189
197
.
6.
Ahmed
,
S.
, and
Boelskifte
,
P.
,
2006
, “
Investigation of Designers Intentions and a Users´ Perception of Product Character
,”
NordDesign Conference
, Reykjavik, Iceland, Aug. 16–18, pp. 372–381.
7.
Hsu
,
S.
,
Chuang
,
M.
, and
Chang
,
C.
,
2000
, “
A Semantic Differential Study of Designers' and Users' Product Form Perception
,”
Int. J. Ind. Ergon.
,
25
(
4
), pp.
375
391
.
8.
Schütte
,
S.
, and
Eklund
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Design of Rocker Switches for Work-Vehicles—An Application of Kansei Engineering
,”
Appl. Ergon.
,
36
(
5
), pp.
557
567
.
9.
Hsiao
,
K.-A.
, and
Chen
,
L.-L.
,
2006
, “
Fundamental Dimensions of Affective Responses to Product Shapes
,”
Int. J. Ind. Ergon.
,
36
(
6
), pp.
553
564
.
10.
Achiche
,
S.
, and
Ahmed
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Modeling Perception of 3d Forms Using Fuzzy Knowledge Bases
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2009-86825.
11.
Perez Mata
,
M.
,
Ahmed-Kristensen
,
S.
, and
Yanagisawa
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Perception of Aesthetics in Consumer Products
,”
19th International Conference on Engineering Design
ICED13
, Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 19–22, pp. 527–536.
12.
Lugo
,
J. E.
,
Schmiedeler
,
J. P.
,
Batill
,
S. M.
, and
Carlson
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Relationship Between Product Aesthetic Subject Preference and Quantified Gestalt Principles in Automobile Wheel Rims
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
138
(
5
), p.
051101
.
13.
Sylcott
,
B.
,
Orsborn
,
S.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
,
2016
, “
The Effect of Product Representation in Visual Conjoint Analysis
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
138
(
10
), p.
101104
.
14.
Sylcott
,
B.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Tabibnia
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Understanding Consumer Tradeoffs Between Form and Function Through Metaconjoint and Cognitive Neuroscience Analyses
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
135
(
10
), p.
101002
.
15.
Ou
,
L. C.
,
Luo
,
M. R.
,
Woodcock
,
A.
, and
Wright
,
A.
,
2004
, “
A Study of Colour Emotion and Colour Preference—Part I: Colour Emotions for Single Colours
,”
Color Res. Appl.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
232
240
.
16.
Choungourian
,
A.
,
1968
, “
Color Preferences and Cultural Variation
,”
Percept. Mot. Skills
,
26
(
3_Suppl
), pp.
1203
1206
.
17.
Choungourian
,
A.
,
1969
, “
Color Preferences: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Sectional Study
,”
Percept. Mot. Skills
,
28
(
3
), pp.
801
802
.
18.
McManus
,
I. C.
,
Jones
,
A. L.
, and
Cottrell
,
J.
,
1981
, “
The Aesthetics of Colour.pdf.pdf
,”
Percept.
,
10
(
6
), pp.
651
666
.
19.
Grieve
,
K. W.
,
1991
, “
Traditional Beliefs and Colour Perception
,”
Percept. Mot. Skills
,
72
(
3_suppl
), pp.
1319
1323
.
20.
Blijlevens
,
J.
,
Creusen
,
M. E. H.
, and
Schoormans
,
J. P. L.
,
2009
, “
How Consumers Perceive Product Appearance: The Identification of Three Product Appearance Attributes
,”
Int. J. Des.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
27
35
.
21.
Perez Mata
,
M.
,
Ahmed-Kristensen
,
S.
, and
Brockhoff
,
P. B.
,
2014
, “
Influence of Consumer's Background on Product Perception
,”
International Design Conference - Design 2014
, Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 19–22, pp.
2125
2134
.
22.
Perez Mata
,
M.
,
Ahmed-Kristensen
,
S.
,
Brockhoff
,
P. B.
, and
Yanagisawa
,
H.
,
2017
, “
Investigating the Influence of Product Perception and Geometric Features
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
28
(3), pp. 357–379.
23.
Green
,
W. S.
,
1999
, “
Introduction: Design and Emotion
,”
First International Conference on Design and Emotion
, Delft, the Netherlands, Nov. 3–5, pp.
7
8
.
24.
Desmet
,
P. M. A.
, and
Hekkert
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Special Issue Editorial: Design & Emotion What Inspired Interest User
,”
Int. J. Des.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
1
6
.
25.
Lawson
,
B.
,
1983
,
How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified
,
Architectural Press
,
Oxford, UK
.
26.
Perez Mata
,
M.
, and
Ahmed-Kristensen
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Principles for Designing for Perceptions
,”
20th International Conference on Engineering Design
(
ICED 15
), Milan, Italy, July 27–30, pp.
239
248
.
27.
Wertheimer
,
M.
,
1938
, “
Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms
,”
A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology
,
Harcourt, Brace and Co
,
New York
, pp.
71
88
.
28.
Fisher
,
M.
, and
Smith-Gratto
,
K.
,
1999
, “
Gestalt Theory: A Foundation for Instructional Screen Design
,”
J. Educ. Technol. Syst.
,
27
(
4
), pp.
361
371
.
29.
Goldstein
,
E. B.
,
1999
,
Sensation and Perception
, 5th ed.,
Brookes/Cole
, Boston, MA.
30.
Moore
,
B.
,
2003
,
An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing
,
Academic Press
,
London
.
31.
Moore
,
P.
, and
Fitz
,
C.
,
1993
, “
Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design
,”
J. Tech. Writ. Commun.
,
23
(
2
), pp.
137
157
.
32.
Chang
,
D.
, and
Nesbitt
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Developing Gestalt-Based Design Guidelines for Multi-Sensory Displays
,”
NICTA-HCSNet Multimodal User Interact. Work
,
57
, 9–16.
33.
Lauer
,
D. A.
, and
Pentak
,
S.
,
1979
,
Design Basics
,
Clark Baxter
,
New York
.
34.
Hekkert
,
P.
,
2006
, “
Design Aesthetics: Principles of Pleasure in Design
,”
Psychol. Sci.
,
48
(
2
), pp.
157
172
.
35.
Pham
,
B.
,
1999
, “
Design for Aesthetics: Interactions of Design Variables and Aesthetic Properties
,”
SPIE IS&T/SPIE 11th Annual Symposium—Electronic Imaging
, pp.
364
371
.
36.
Roussos
,
L.
, and
Dentsoras
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Formulation and Use of Criteria for the Evaluation of Aesthetic Attributes of Products in Engineering Design
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design ICED13
, Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 19–22, pp.
1
10
.
37.
Achiche
,
S.
, and
Ahmed-Kristensen
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Genetic Fuzzy Modeling of User Perception of Three-Dimensional Shapes
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
93
107
.
38.
Lugo
,
J. E.
,
Schmiedeler
,
J. P.
,
Batill
,
S. M.
, and
Carlson
,
L.
,
2015
, “
Quantification of Classical Gestalt Principles in Two-Dimensional Product Representations
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
9
), p.
094502
.
39.
Valencia-Romero
,
A.
, and
Lugo
,
J. E.
,
2016
, “
Quantification of Symmetry, Parallelism, and Continuity as Continuous Design Variables for Three-Dimensional Product Representations
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2016-59707.
40.
Hsiao
,
S. W.
, and
Chou
,
J. R.
,
2006
, “
A Gestalt-like Perceptual Measure for Home Page Design Using a Fuzzy Entropy Approach
,”
Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud.
,
64
(
2
), pp.
137
156
.
41.
Van Bremen
,
E. J. J.
,
Knoop
,
W. G.
,
Horvath
,
I.
,
Vergeest
,
J. S. M.
, and
Pham
,
B.
,
1998
, “
Developing a Methodology for Design for Aesthetics Based on Analogy of Communication
,”
ASME Design Theory and Methodology Conference
, Atlanta, Georgia, Sept. 13–16.
42.
Desmet
,
P. M. A.
,
2010
, “
Three Levels of Product Emotion
,”
International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research
(
KEER
), Paris, France, Mar. 2–4, pp.
238
248
.
43.
Jordan
,
P. W.
,
2000
,
Designing Pleasurable Products
,
Taylor & Francis
,
London
.
44.
Norman
,
D. A.
,
2004
,
Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things
,
Basic Books
,
New York
.
45.
Colwill
,
J.
,
Childs
,
T. H. C.
,
de Pennington
,
A.
,
Rait
,
J.
,
Robins
,
T. M.
,
Jones
,
K.
,
Workman
,
C.
, and
Warren
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Affective Design (Kansei Engineering) in Japan: A Report From a DTI International Technology Service Mission
,” Faraday Packaging Partnership, White Rose University Consortium, England.
46.
Lai
,
H.-H. H.
,
Chang
,
Y.-M. M.
, and
Chang
,
H.-C. C.
,
2005
, “
A Robust Design Approach for Enhancing the Feeling Quality of a Product: A Car Profile Case Study
,”
Int. J. Ind. Ergon.
,
35
(
5
), pp.
445
460
.
47.
Yanagisawa
,
H.
, and
Fukuda
,
S.
,
2005
, “
Interactive Reduct Evolutional Computation for Aesthetic Design
,”
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.
48.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Boatwright
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Quantifying Aesthetic Form Preference in a Utility Function
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
(
6
), p.
061001
.
49.
Hekkert
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Aesthetic Responses to Design: A Battle of Impulses
,”
The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Aesthetics and the Arts
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
, pp.
277
299
.
50.
Khalaj
,
J.
, and
Pedgley
,
O.
,
2014
, “
Comparison of Semantic Intent and Realization in Product Design: A Study on High-End Furniture Impressions
,”
Int. J. Des.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
79
96
.
51.
Krishnamurti
,
R.
, and
Stouffs
,
R.
,
1993
, “
Spatial Grammars: Motivation, Comparison, and New Results
,”
CAAD Futures (1943)
, pp.
57
74
.
52.
Knight
,
T. W.
,
1993
, “
Color Grammars: The Representation of Form and Color in Designs
,”
Leonardo
,
26
(
2
), pp.
117
124
.
53.
Stiny
,
G.
,
1977
, “
Ice-Ray: A Note on the Generation of Chinese Lattice Designs
,”
Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des
,
4
(
1
), pp.
89
98
.
54.
Stiny
,
G.
, and
Mitchell
,
W.
,
1978
, “
The Palladian Grammar
,”
Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des.
,
5
(
2
), pp.
5
18
.
55.
Koning
,
H.
, and
Eizenberg
,
J.
,
1981
, “
The Language of the Prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie Houses
,”
Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
295
323
.
56.
McCormack
,
J. P.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Vogel
,
C. M.
,
2004
, “
Speaking the Buick Language: Capturing, Understanding, and Exploring Brand Identity With Shape Grammars
,”
Des. Stud.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
1
29
.
57.
Agarwal
,
M.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
,
1998
, “
A Blend of Different Tastes: The Language of Coffee Makers
,”
Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des.
,
25
(
2
), pp.
205
226
.
58.
Chau
,
H. H.
,
Chen
,
X.
,
McKay
,
A.
, and
Pennington
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Evaluation of a 3D Shape Grammar Implementation
,”
Design Computing and Cognition '04
, .,
Kluwer Academic Publishers
,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands
, pp.
357
376
.
59.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
,
Pawlicki
,
R.
, and
Smith
,
R.
,
2006
, “
Pushing the Limits of Vehicle Design: Utilizing a Parametric Shape Grammar to Explore Cross-Over Vehicle Concepts
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2006-99152.
60.
Orsborn
,
S.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Multiagent Shape Grammar Implementation: Automatically Generating Form Concepts According to a Preference Function
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
(
12
), p.
121007
.
61.
Chen
,
X.
,
McKay
,
A.
,
Pennington
,
A.
, and
Chau
,
H. H.
,
2009
, “
Translating Brand Essence Into Product Form: A Case Study in Shape Computation
,”
J. Des. Res.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
42
65
.
62.
Perez Mata
,
M.
,
Ahmed-Kristensen
,
S.
, and
Shea
,
K.
,
2015
, “
Spatial Grammar for Design Synthesis Targeting Perceptions: Case Study on Beauty)
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2015-46449.
63.
Goldberg
,
D.
,
1989
,
Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning
,
Addison-Wesley
,
London
.
64.
Ang
,
M. C.
,
Chau
,
H. H.
,
Mckay
,
A.
, and
Pennington
,
A. D. E.
,
2006
, “
Combining Evolutionary Algorithms and Shape Grammars to Generate Branded Product Design
,”
Design Computing and Cognition '06
, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
65.
Rosenman
,
M. A.
,
1997
, “
An Exploration Into Evolutionary Models for Non-Routine Design
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
287
293
.
66.
Bentley
,
P. J.
,
Gordon
,
T. G. W.
,
Kim
,
J.
, and
Kumar
,
S.
,
2001
, “
New Trends in Evolutionary Computation
,”
Congress on Evolutionary Computation
, Seoul, South Korea, May 27–30, pp.
162
169
.
67.
Renner
,
G.
, and
Ekárt
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Genetic Algorithms in Computer Aided Design
,”
Comput. Des.
,
35
(
8
), pp.
709
726
.
68.
Cluzel
,
F.
,
Yannou
,
B.
, and
Dihlmann
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Using Evolutionary Design to Interactively Sketch Car Silhouettes and Stimulate Designer's Creativity
,”
Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell.
,
25
(
7
), pp.
1413
1424
.
69.
Krish
,
S.
,
2011
, “
A Practical Generative Design Method
,”
CAD Comput. Aided Des.
,
43
(
1
), pp.
88
100
.
70.
Woodbury
,
R.
,
2010
,
Elements of Parametric Design
,
Routledge
,
Abingdon, UK
.
71.
Solano
,
L.
, and
Brunet
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Constructive Constraint-Based Model for Parametric CAD Systems
,”
Comput. Des.
,
26
(
8
), pp. 614–621.
72.
Hoisl
,
F.
,
2012
,
Visual, Interactive 3D Spatial Grammars in CAD for Computational Design Synthesis
,
Technical University München
,
Munich, Germany
.
73.
Hoisl
,
F.
, and
Shea
,
K.
,
2011
, “
An Interactive, Visual Approach to Developing and Applying Parametric Three-Dimensional Spatial Grammars
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
25
(
4
), pp.
333
356
.
74.
Achiche
,
S.
, and
Ahmed
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Mapping Shape Geometry and Emotions Using Fuzzy Logic
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2008-49290.
75.
Osgood
,
C. E.
,
Suci
,
G. J.
, and
Tannenbaum
,
P. H.
,
1957
,
The Measurement of Meaning
,
University of Illinois Press
,
Urbana, IL
.
76.
Cronbach
,
L. J.
,
1951
, “
Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests
,”
Psychometrika
,
16
(
3
), pp.
297
334
.
77.
Nunnally
,
J. C.
, and
Bernstein
,
I. H.
,
1994
,
Psychometric Theory
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
78.
Birkhoff
,
G. D.
,
1933
,
Aesthetic Measure
, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p.
226
.
79.
Hsiao
,
S.-W.
,
Chiu
,
F.-Y.
, and
Chen
,
C. S.
,
2008
, “
Applying Aesthetics Measurement to Product Design
,”
Int. J. Ind. Ergon.
,
38
(
11–12
), pp.
910
920
.
80.
Mardia
,
K. V.
,
1970
, “
Measures of Multivariate Skewness and Kurtosis With Applications
,”
Biometrika
,
57
(
3
), pp.
519
530
.
81.
StataCorp
,
2015
, “
Stata 14 Base Reference Manual
,” pp.
1
2556
.
82.
Shapiro
,
A. S. S.
, and
Wilk
,
M. B.
,
1965
, “
An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples)
,”
Biometrika
,
52
(
3/4
), pp.
591
611
.
83.
Wilcoxon
,
F.
,
1945
, “
Individual Comparisons of Grouped Data by Ranking Methods
,”
J. Econ. Entomol.
,
1
(
6
), pp.
80
83
.
84.
McCrum-Gardner
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Which Is the Correct Statistical Test to Use?
,”
Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
,
46
(
1
), pp.
38
41
.
85.
Genometri Ltd.
,
2013
, “
Genoform Plugin v3.0
,” Genometri Ltd., Singapore.
86.
Goldman
,
A.
,
1995
,
Aesthetic Value
,
Westview Press
,
Boulder, CO
.
You do not currently have access to this content.