One of the purposes of creating products for developing countries is to improve the consumer's quality of life. Currently, there is no standard method for measuring the social impact of these types of products. As a result, engineers have used their own metrics, if at all. Some of the common metrics used include products sold and revenue, which measure the financial success of a product without recognizing the social successes or failures it might have. In this paper, we introduce a potential universal metric, the product impact metric (PIM), which quantifies the impact a product has on impoverished individuals—especially those living in developing countries. It measures social impact broadly in five dimensions: health, education, standard of living, employment quality, and security. By measuring impact multidimensionally, it captures impacts both anticipated and unanticipated, thereby providing a broader assessment of the product's total impact than with other more specific metrics. The PIM is calculated based on 18 simple field measurements of the consumer. It is inspired by the UN's Multidimensional Poverty Index (UNMPI) created by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The UNMPI measures how level of poverty within a nation changes year after year, and the PIM measures how an individual's poverty level changes after being affected by an engineered product. The PIM can be used to measure social impact (using specific data from products introduced into the market) or predict social impact (using personas that represent real individuals).

References

References
1.
The World Bank,
2016
,
World Development Indicators 2016
,
World Bank Publications
, Washington, DC.
2.
George
,
C.
,
2012
, “
Is the Community Partner Satisfied?
,” Service-Learning in the Computer and Information Sciences: Practical Applications in Engineering Education, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp.
517
530
.
3.
Fontes, J., Bolhuis, A., Bogaers, K., Saling, P., van Gelder, R., Traverso, M., Das Gupta, J., Morris, D., Bosch, H., and Woodyard, D.,
2016
,
Handbook for Product Social Impact Assessment
,
PRé Sustainability
,
Le Amersfoort, The Netherlands
.
4.
Becker
,
H. A.
,
2001
, “
Social Impact Assessment
,”
Eur. J. Oper. Res.
,
128
(
2
), pp.
311
321
.
5.
Mair
,
J.
, and
Noboa
,
E.
,
2006
, “
Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Venture are Formed
,”
Social Entrepreneurship
, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp.
121
135
.
6.
Hutchins
,
M. J.
,
Gierke
,
J. S.
, and
Sutherland
,
J. W.
,
2009
, “
Decision Making for Social Sustainability: A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach
,” IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (
ISTAS'09
), Tempe, AZ, May 18–20, pp.
1
5
.
7.
Woodcraft
,
S.
,
Hackett
,
T.
, and
Caistor-Arendar
,
L.
,
2011
,
Design for Social Sustainability: A Framework for Creating Thriving New Communities
,
Future Communities
, London.
8.
Ma
,
J.
, and
Kremer
,
G. E. O.
,
2015
, “A Modular Product Design Method to Improve Product Social Sustainability Performance,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2015-46623.
9.
Lee
,
E. J.
, and
Schwab
,
K. J.
,
2005
, “
Deficiencies in Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Developing Countries
,”
J. Water Health
,
3
(
2
), pp.
109
127
.
10.
Bruce
,
N.
,
Perez-Padilla
,
R.
, and
Albalak
,
R.
,
2000
, “
Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health Challenge
,”
Bull. World Health Org.
,
78
(
9
), pp.
1078
1092
.
11.
Sagar
,
A. D.
,
2005
, “
Alleviating Energy Poverty for the World's Poor
,”
Energy Policy
,
33
(
11
), pp.
1367
1372
.
12.
Grantham-McGregor
,
S.
,
Cheung
,
Y. B.
,
Cueto
,
S.
,
Glewwe
,
P.
,
Richter
,
L.
, and
Strupp
,
B.
, and
International Child Development Steering Group
,
2007
, “
Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries
,”
Lancet
,
369
(
9555
), pp.
60
70
.
13.
UNICEF
,
2015
, “
The State of the World's Children 2015: Reimagine the Future: Innovation for Every Child
,” The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund,
New York
, pp.
29
115
.
14.
Rogers
,
E. M.
,
2010
,
Diffusion of Innovations
,
Simon and Schuster
, Stuttgart, Germany.
15.
Wood
,
A. E.
, and
Mattson
,
C. A.
,
2016
, “
Design for the Developing World: Common Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
138
(
3
), p.
031101
.
16.
George
,
C.
, and
Shams
,
A.
,
2007
, “
The Challenge of Including Customer Satisfaction Into the Assessment Criteria of Overseas Service-Learning Projects
,”
Int. J. Service Learn. Eng.
,
2
(
2
), pp.
64
75
.
17.
Sovacool
,
B. K.
, and
Dworkin
,
M. H.
,
2015
, “
Energy Justice: Conceptual Insights and Practical Applications
,”
Appl. Energy
,
142
, pp.
435
444
.
18.
Thacker
,
K. S.
,
Barger
,
M.
, and
Mattson
,
C. A.
,
2014
, “
A Global Review of End User Needs: Establishing the Need for Adaptable Cookstoves
,” IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (
GHTC
), San Jose, CA, Oct. 10–13, pp.
649
658
.
19.
MacCarty
,
N. A.
, and
Bryden
,
K. M.
,
2016
, “
An Integrated Systems Model for Energy Services in Rural Developing Communities
,”
Energy
,
113
, pp.
536
557
.
20.
Bovea
,
M. D.
, and
Vidal
,
R.
,
2004
, “
Increasing Product Value by Integrating Environmental Impact, Costs and Customer Valuation
,”
Resour. Conserv. Recycl.
,
41
(
2
), pp.
133
145
.
21.
Mulugetta
,
Y.
,
2005
,
Energy for Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Sustainable Decision Making
,
Intermediate Technology
, Rugby, UK.
22.
Benoît
,
C.
,
2010
,
Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products
,
UNEP/Earthprint, Nairobi, Kenya
.
23.
UNDP
,
2010
, “Human Development Report 2010,” United Nations Development Programme, New York,
Report
.
24.
Alkire
,
S.
,
2007
, “
The Missing Dimensions of Poverty Data: Introduction to the Special Issue
,”
Oxford Dev. Stud.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
347
359
.
25.
Ana Lugo
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Employment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators
,”
Oxford Dev. Stud.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
361
378
.
26.
Diprose
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Physical Safety and Security: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Violence
,”
Oxford Dev. Stud.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
431
458
.
27.
Ibrahim
,
S.
, and
Alkire
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Agency and Empowerment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators
,”
Oxford Dev. Stud.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
379
403
.
28.
Samman
,
E.
,
2007
, “
Psychological and Subjective Well-Being: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators
,”
Oxford Dev. Stud.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
459
486
.
29.
Zavaleta Reyles
,
D.
,
2007
, “
The Ability to Go About Without Shame: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Shame and Humiliation
,”
Oxford Dev. Stud.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
405
430
.
30.
Peña-García
,
A.
,
Hurtado
,
A.
, and
Aguilar-Luzón
,
M. C.
,
2015
, “
Impact of Public Lighting on Pedestrians' Perception of Safety and Well-Being
,”
Saf. Sci.
,
78
, pp.
142
148
.
31.
Painter
,
K.
,
1996
, “
The Influence of Street Lighting Improvements on Crime, Fear and Pedestrian Street Use, After Dark
,”
Landscape Urban Plann.
,
35
(
2
), pp.
193
201
.
32.
Alkire
,
S.
, and
Santos
,
M. E.
,
2010
, “Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries,” Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, Oxford, UK, Working Paper No.
38
.
33.
Billig
,
P.
,
Bendahmane
,
D.
, and
Swindale
,
A.
,
1999
, “Water and Sanitation Indicators Measurement Guide,” Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
34.
CDC
,
2000
, “
CDC Growth Charts for the United States: Methods and Development
,” Vital Health Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD,
Report
.
35.
Levitt
,
S. D.
,
2004
, “
Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors That Explain the Decline and Six That Do Not
,”
J. Econ. Perspect.
,
18
(
1
), pp.
163
190
.
36.
Edgar
,
J. M.
,
McInerney
,
W. D.
, and
Mele
,
J. A.
,
2013
,
The Use of Locks in Physical Crime Prevention: National Crime Prevention Institute
,
Elsevier
, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
37.
Welsh
,
B. C.
, and
Hoshi
,
A.
,
2002
, “
Communities and Crime Prevention
,”
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention
, Vol.
165
, Routledge, London.
38.
Barslund
,
M.
,
Rand
,
J.
,
Tarp
,
F.
, and
Chiconela
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Understanding Victimization: The Case of Mozambique
,”
World Dev.
,
35
(
7
), pp.
1237
1258
.
39.
Andresen
,
M. A.
,
2011
, “
Estimating the Probability of Local Crime Clusters: The Impact of Immediate Spatial Neighbors
,”
J. Crim. Justice
,
39
(
5
), pp.
394
404
.
40.
Sen
,
A.
,
1981
,
Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation
,
Oxford University Press
, Oxford, UK.
41.
Alkire
,
S.
, and
Santos
,
M. E.
,
2013
, “
Measuring Acute Poverty in the Developing World: Robustness and Scope of the Multidimensional Poverty Index
,” Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, Oxford, UK, Working Paper No.
59
.
42.
Mattson
,
C. A.
,
Wood
,
A. E.
, and
Renouard
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Village Drill: A Case Study in Engineering for Global Development, With Five Years of Data Post Market-Introduction
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
139
(
6
), p.
065001
.
43.
Khandker
,
S. R.
,
Koolwal
,
G. B.
, and
Samad
,
H. A.
,
2009
,
Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices
,
World Bank Publications
, Washington, DC.
44.
Gertler
,
P. J.
,
Martinez
,
S.
,
Premand
,
P.
,
Rawlings
,
L. B.
, and
Vermeersch
,
C. M. J.
,
2011
,
Impact Evaluation in Practice
,
World Bank Publications
, Washington, DC.
45.
Hanington
,
B.
, and
Martin
,
B.
,
2012
,
Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions
,
Rockport Publishers
, Beverly, MA.
46.
Amin
,
M.
,
Kuntchev
,
V.
, and
Schmidt
,
M.
,
2015
, “Gender Inequality and Growth: The Case of Rich Vs. Poor Countries,” World Bank, Washington, DC, Policy Research Working Paper No.
7172
.
47.
Mattson
,
C. A.
, and
Wood
,
A. E.
,
2014
, “
Nine Principles for Design for the Developing World as Derived From the Engineering Literature
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
136
(
12
), p.
121403
.
48.
IBGE,
2016
, “Cidades,” Itacoatiara, Amazonas, Brazil.
49.
Muir
,
J. A.
,
2012
, “Indicators of Fertility Change in a Developing Nation: Examining the Impact of Motorcycles as a Distance Demolishing Technology on Fertility Change in Rural Indonesia,”
M.S. thesis
, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
50.
de Vasconcellos
,
E. A.
,
2013
, “
Road Safety Impacts of the Motorcycle in Brazil
,”
Int. J. Inj. Control Saf. Promot.
,
20
(
2
), pp.
144
151
.
51.
Jones
,
T.
, and
de Azevedo
,
L. N.
,
2013
, “
Economic, Social and Cultural Transformation and the Role of the Bicycle in Brazil
,”
J. Transp. Geogr.
,
30
, pp.
208
219
.
You do not currently have access to this content.