This paper presents the embodiment design of an interchangeable print head based on twin-screw extrusion, specially developed to allow in-process multimaterial mixing and direct deposition of the product to structure three-dimensional (3D) parts. The print head focus on research applications with middle-end 3D printers. Commercial extrusion-based 3D printers have limited applicability due to the scarce variety of plastic filaments available. In that context, one important trend for the advance of additive manufacturing (AM) is the design of systems capable of using alternative material types in different states. The systematic process is presented as a case study and brings together concepts from mechanical design and polymer processing. The main contribution of this paper is to provide general guidelines to be used on similar projects, in view of the crescent demand for more adequate and flexible additive processes.

References

References
1.
Chen
,
L.
,
He
,
Y.
,
Yang
,
Y.
,
Niu
,
S.
, and
Ren
,
H.
,
2016
, “
The Research Status and Development Trend of Additive Manufacturing Technology
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
89
(
9–12
), pp. 3651–3660.
2.
Li
,
J.
,
Myant
,
C.
, and
Wu
,
B.
,
2016
, “
The Current Landscape for Additive Manufacturing Research
,” Imperial College of London, London.
3.
Gutierrez
,
J. G.
,
Cano
,
S.
,
Schuschnigg
,
S.
,
Kukla
,
C.
,
Sapkota
,
J.
, and
Holzer
,
C.
,
2018
, “
Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives
,”
Materials
,
11
(
5
), p. E840.
4.
Roberson
,
D.
,
Shemelya
,
C. M.
,
Macdonald
,
E.
, and
Wicker
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Expanding the Applicability of FDM-Type Technologies Through Materials Development
,”
Rapid Prototyping J.
,
21
(
2
), pp. 137–143.
5.
Turner
,
B. N.
,
Strong
,
R.
, and
Gold
,
S. A.
,
2014
, “
A Review of Melt Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes—Part I: Process Design and Modeling
,”
Rapid Prototyping J.
,
20
(
3
), pp. 192–204.
6.
Singh
,
S.
,
Ramakrishna
,
S.
, and
Singh
,
R.
,
2017
, “
Material Issues in Additive Manufacturing: A Review
,”
J. Manuf. Processes
,
25
, pp. 185–200.
7.
Rocha
,
C. R.
,
Torrado Perez
,
A. R.
, and
Roberson
,
D. A.
,
2014
, “
Novel ABS-Based Binary and Ternary Polymer Blends for Material Extrusion 3D Printing
,”
J. Mater. Res.
,
29
(
17
), pp. 1859–1866.
8.
Prüß
,
H.
, and
Vietor
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Design for Fiber-Reinforced Additive Manufacturing
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
11
), p. 111409.
9.
Bellini
,
A.
,
Shor
,
L.
, and
Guceri
,
S. I.
,
2005
, “
New Developments in Fused Deposition Modelling of Ceramics
,”
Rapid Prototyping J.
,
11
(
4
), pp. 214–220.
10.
Torrado
,
A. R.
,
Shemelya
,
C. M.
,
English
,
J. D.
,
Lin
,
Y.
,
Wicker
,
R. B.
, and
Roberson
,
D. A.
,
2015
, “
Characterizing the Effect of Additives to ABS on the Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Specimens Fabricated by Material Extrusion 3D Printing
,”
Addit. Manuf.
,
6
, pp. 16–29.
11.
Volpato
,
N.
,
Kretschek
,
D.
,
Foggiato
,
J. A.
, and
Cruz
,
C. M. G. S.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Analysis of an Extrusion System for Additive Manufacturing Based on Polymer Pellets
,”
Int. J. Addit. Manuf.
,
81
(
9–12
), pp. 1519–1531.
12.
Dávila
,
J. L.
,
Freitas
,
M. S.
,
Inforçatti Neto
,
P.
,
Silveira
,
Z. C.
,
Silva
,
J. V. L.
, and
D'ávila
,
M. A.
,
2015
, “
Fabrication of PCL/β-TCP Scaffolds by 3D Mini-Screw Extrusion Printing
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
,
133
(
15
), pp. 5291–5297.
13.
Cheng
,
X.
,
Zhang
,
G.
,
Zhou
,
G.
, and
Cui
,
Z.
,
2011
, “
The Design of Screw Extrusion Mechanism Based on Melted Extrusion Modelling
,”
Appl. Mech. Mater.
,
44–47
, pp. 1455–1459.
14.
Ragaert
,
K.
,
De Baere
,
I.
,
Moerman
,
M.
,
Cardon
,
L.
, and
Degrieck
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Design and Thermoregulation of a New Micro Extrusion Dispense Head for 3D-Plotting of Thermally Sensitive Thermoplastics
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
53
(
2
), pp. 273–282.
15.
Silveira
,
Z. C.
,
Freitas
,
M. S.
,
Inforçatti Neto
,
P.
,
Noritomi
,
P. Y.
, and
Silva
,
J. V. L.
,
2014
, “
Development of an Interchangeable Head Based on Variable Section Screw Applied to Desktop 3-D Printer
,”
Int. J. Rapid Manuf.
,
4
(
1
), pp. 49–65.
16.
Justino Netto
,
J. M.
, and
Silveira
,
Z. C.
,
2017
, “
Modular Vertical Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extrusion Device and Its Extrusion Process
,” Patent No. BR 10 2017 022948-3.
17.
Silveira
,
Z. C.
, and
Freitas
,
M. S.
,
2014
, “
Study of the Technical Feasibility and Design of a Mini Head Screw Extruder Applied to Filament Deposition in Desktop 3-D Printer
,”
Key Eng. Mater.
,
572
, pp. 151–154.
18.
Silveira
,
Z. C.
,
Freitas
,
M. S.
,
Inforçatti Neto
,
P.
,
Noritomi
,
P. Y.
, and
Silva
,
J. V. L.
,
2014
, “
Design Development and Functional Validation of an Interchangeable Head Based on Mini Screw Extrusion Applied in an Experimental Desktop 3-D Printer
,”
Int. J. Rapid Manuf.
,
4
(
1
), pp. 49–65.
19.
Patrício
,
T.
,
Domingos
,
M.
,
Gloria
,
A.
, and
Bártolo
,
P.
,
3013
, “
Characterization of PCL and PCL/PLA Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
,”
Procedia CIRP
,
5
, pp. 110–114.
20.
Rauwendaal
,
C.
,
2014
,
Polymer Extrusion
,
5th ed.
,
Carl Hanser Verlag
, Munich, Germany.
21.
Kohlgrüber
,
K.
,
2008
,
Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
,
Carl Hanser Verlag
, Munich,
Germany
.
22.
Giles
,
H. F. J.
,
Wagner
,
J. R. J.
, and
Mount
,
E. M.
, III
,
2004
,
Extrusion: The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook
,
William Andrew
, Norwich, NY.
23.
Booy
,
M. L.
,
1978
, “
Geometry of Fully Wiped Twin-Screw Equipment
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
18
(
12
), pp. 973–984.
24.
C.A. Picard International,
2004
, “
Screw Design for Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
,”
Plast. Addit. Compd.
,
6
(
2
), pp. 38–41.
25.
Aho
,
J.
, and
Syrjälä
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Measurement of the Pressure Dependence of Viscosity of Polymer Melts Using a Back Pressure-Regulated Capillary Rheometer
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
,
117
(
2
), pp. 1076–1084.
26.
Eitzlmayr
,
A.
,
Koscher
,
G.
,
Reynolds
,
G.
,
Huang
,
Z.
,
Booth
,
J.
,
Shering
,
P.
, and
Khinast
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Mechanistic Modeling of Modular Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
,”
Int. J. Pharm.
,
474
(
1–2
), pp. 157–176.
27.
Schramm
,
G.
,
1994
,
A Practical Approach to Rheology and Rheometry
,
Haake
, Karlsruhe,
Germany
.
You do not currently have access to this content.