Personal context-specific experience can affect how a designer evaluates a design problem and proposes solutions. However, this effect was seldom discovered in a quantitative manner in problem-solving design tasks. This paper uses empirical evidence and quantitative methods to show the effects of novice designers' contextual experience on design tasks, particularly as it relates to the design process and design outcomes. Thirty-three people performed two design tasks while their cognitive states were assessed using electroencephalography (EEG). Moreover, the objective ratings (i.e., quantity, novelty and quality) from prospective users were analyzed to gauge the effect of contextual experience on design outcomes. Results suggest that during ideation, contextual experience has a negative effect on mental states associated with creativity and also on the novelty evaluations of the proposed solutions in the tested design tasks. This research advances the development of design methods for novice designers.

References

References
1.
Atman
,
C. J.
,
Adams
,
R. S.
,
Cardella
,
M. E.
,
Turns
,
J.
,
Mosborg
,
S.
, and
Saleem
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Engineering Design Processes: A Comparison of Students and Expert Practitioners
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
96
(
4
), pp.
359
379
.
2.
Ball
,
L. J.
,
Ormerod
,
T. C.
, and
Morley
,
N. J.
,
2004
, “
Spontaneous Analogising in Engineering Design: A Comparative Analysis of Experts and Novices
,”
Des. Stud.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
495
508
.
3.
Bonnardel
,
N.
, and
Marmèche
,
E.
,
2004
, “
Evocation Processes by Novice and Expert Designers: Towards Stimulating Analogical Thinking
,”
Creativity Innovation Manage.
,
13
(
3
), pp.
176
186
.
4.
Dixon
,
R. A.
,
2011
, “
Selected Core Thinking Skills and Cognitive Strategy of an Expert and Novice Engineer
,”
J. STEM Teach. Educ.
,
48
(
1
), pp.
36
67
.https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ952043
5.
Kavakli
,
M.
, and
Gero
,
J. S.
,
2002
, “
The Structure of Concurrent Cognitive Actions: A Case Study on Novice and Expert Designers
,”
Des. Stud.
,
23
(
1
), pp.
25
40
.
6.
Casakin
,
H.
,
2004
, “
Visual Analogy as a Cognitive Strategy in the Design Process. Expert Versus Novice Performance
,”
J. Des. Res.
,
4
(
2
), p.
124
.
8.
Cross
,
N.
,
2004
, “
Expertise in Design: An Overview
,”
Des. Stud.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
427
441
.
9.
Nonaka, I.
, 1991, “
The Knowledge Creating Company
,”
Harvard Business Review
,
69
(6), pp. 96–104.
10.
Morkos
,
B.
, and
Summers
,
J. D.
,
2013
, “
A Study of Designer Familiarity With Product and User During Requirement Elicitation
,”
Int. J. Comput. Aided Eng. Technol.
,
5
(
2/3
), pp.
139
158
.
11.
Seshadri
,
P.
, and
Reid
,
T. N.
,
2015
, “
Novice Engineers' Predisposition to Compassionate Design
,”
20th International Conference on Engineering and Design (ICED 15)
, pp.
143
152
.
12.
Förster
,
J.
,
Friedman
,
R. S.
, and
Liberman
,
N.
,
2004
, “
Temporal Construal Effects on Abstract and Concrete Thinking: Consequences for Insight and Creative Cognition
,”
J. Pers. Soc. Psychol.
,
87
(
2
), pp.
177
189
.
13.
Jia
,
L.
,
Hirt
,
E. R.
, and
Karpen
,
S. C.
,
2009
, “
Lessons From a Faraway Land: The Effect of Spatial Distance on Creative Cognition
,”
J. Exp. Social Psychol.
,
45
(
5
), pp.
1127
1131
.
14.
Polman
,
E.
, and
Emich
,
K. J.
,
2011
, “
Decisions for Others Are More Creative Than Decisions for the Self
,”
Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull.
,
37
(
4
), pp.
492
501
.
15.
IDEO
,
2011
,
Human-Centered Design Toolkit: An Open-Source Toolkit to Inspire New Solutions in the Developing World
,
2nd ed.
, Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis, Palo Alto, CA.
16.
Hanington
,
B.
,
2003
, “
Methods in the Making: A Perspective on the State of Human Research in Design
,”
Des. Issues
,
19
(
4
), pp.
9
18
.
17.
Coleman
,
R.
,
Lebbon
,
C.
, and
Myerson
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Design and Empathy
,”
Inclusive Design
,
J.
Clarkson
,
S.
Keates
,
R.
Coleman
, and
C.
Lebbon
, eds.,
Springer
,
London
, Chap. 28, pp.
478
499
.
18.
McDonagh
,
D.
, and
Thomas
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Disability + Relevant Design: Empathic Design Strategies Supporting More Effective New Product Design Outcomes
,”
Des. J.
,
13
(
2
), pp.
180
198
.
19.
Norman
,
D. A.
, and
Verganti
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research vs. Technology and Meaning Change
,”
Des. Issues
,
30
(
1
), pp.
78
96
.
20.
Vasconcelos
,
L.
,
Crilly
,
N.
,
Chen
,
C.
,
Campos
,
F.
, and
Kelner
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Whats the Benefit of Problem Exploration
,”
14th International Design Conference (DESIGN 2016)
, pp.
89
98
.
21.
Hu
,
W.-L.
,
Booth
,
J. W.
, and
Reid
,
T.
,
2017
, “
The Relationship Between Design Outcomes and Mental States During Ideation
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
139
(
5
), p.
051101
.
22.
Nightingale
,
P.
,
1998
, “
A Cognitive Model of Innovation
,”
Res. Policy
,
27
(
7
), pp.
689
709
.
23.
Wong
,
W. L. P.
, and
Radcliffe
,
D. F.
,
2000
, “
The Tacit Nature of Design Knowledge
,”
Technol. Anal. Strategic Manage.
,
12
(
4
), pp.
493
512
.
24.
Salter
,
A.
, and
Gann
,
D.
,
2003
, “
Sources of Ideas for Innovation in Engineering Design
,”
Res. Policy
,
32
(
8
), pp.
1309
1324
.
25.
Woods
,
D. R.
,
2000
, “
An Evidence-Based Strategy for Problem Solving
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
89
(4), pp. 443–459.
26.
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Hacker
,
P.
, and
Wallace
,
K.
,
2005
, “
The Role of Knowledge and Experience in Engineering Design
,”
15th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 05)
, Melbourne, Australia, Aug. 15–18.
27.
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Wallace
,
K. M.
, and
Blessing
,
L. T.
,
2003
, “
Understanding the Differences Between How Novice and Experienced Designers Approach Design Tasks
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
1
11
.
28.
Cross
,
N.
,
2001
, “
Design Cognition: Results From Protocol and Other Empirical Studies of Design Activity
,”
Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education
,
C.
Eastman
,
W.
Newstetter
, and
M.
McCracken
, eds.,
Elsevier
,
Oxford, UK
, Chap. 5, pp.
79
103
.
29.
Mascitelli
,
R.
,
2000
, “
From Experience: Harnessing Tacit Knowledge to Achieve Breakthrough Innovation
,”
J. Prod. Innovation Manage.
,
17
(
3
), pp.
179
193
.
30.
Östberg
,
G.
,
1994
, “
What Goes on When a Designer Thinks?
,”
AI Soc.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
45
59
.
31.
Yen
,
J.
,
Liu
,
X.
, and
Hor Teh
,
S.
,
1994
, “
A Fuzzy Logic-Based Methodology for the Acquisition and Analysis of Imprecise Requirements
,”
Concurrent Eng.: Res. Appl.
,
2
, pp.
265
277
.
32.
Cross
,
N.
, and
Cross
,
A. C.
,
1998
, “
Expertise in Engineering Design
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
141
149
.
33.
Hu
,
W.-L.
,
Booth
,
J.
, and
Reid
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Reducing Sketch Inhibition During Concept Generation: Psychophysiological Evidence of the Effect of Interventions
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2015-47669.
34.
Bradwell
,
P.
, and
Marr
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Making the Most of Collaboration an International Survey of Public Service Co-Design
,” Demos, London, Technical Report No.
23
.https://www.demos.co.uk/files/CollabWeb.pdf
35.
RussoSpena
,
T.
,
Mele
,
C.
,
Russo Spena
,
T.
, and
Mele
,
C.
,
2012
, “
Five Cos in Innovating: A Practice Based View
,”
J. Serv. Manage.
,
23
(
4
), pp.
527
553
.
36.
Sanders
,
E. B.-N.
, and
Stappers
,
P. J.
,
2008
, “
Co-Creation and the New Landscapes of Design
,”
CoDesign
,
4
(
1
), pp.
5
18
.
37.
Prahalad
,
C. K.
, and
Ramaswamy
,
V.
,
2004
, “
Co-Creation Experiences: The Next Practice in Value Creation
,”
J. Interact. Mark.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
5
14
.
38.
Mitchell
,
V.
,
Ross
,
T.
,
May
,
A.
,
Sims
,
R.
, and
Parker
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Empirical Investigation of the Impact of Using Co-Design Methods When Generating Proposals for Sustainable Travel Solutions
,”
CoDesign
,
12
(
4
), pp.
205
220
.
39.
Witell
,
L.
,
Kristensson
,
P.
,
Gustafsson
,
A.
, and
Löfgren
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Idea Generation: Customer Cocreation Versus Traditional Market Research Techniques
,”
J. Serv. Manage.
,
22
(
2
), pp.
140
159
.
40.
Kristensson
,
P.
,
Magnusson
,
P. R.
, and
Matthing
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Users as a Hidden Resource for Creativity: Findings From an Experimental Study on User Involvement
,”
Creativity Innovation Manage.
,
11
(
1
), pp.
55
61
.
41.
Magnusson
,
P. R.
,
Matthing
,
J.
, and
Kristensson
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Managing User Involvement in Service Innovation: Experiments With Innovating End Users
,”
J. Serv. Res.
,
6
(
2
), pp.
111
124
.
42.
Magnusson
,
P. R.
,
2003
, “
Benefits of Involving Users in Service Innovation
,”
Eur. J. Innovation Manage.
,
6
(
4
), pp.
228
238
.
43.
Poetz
,
M. K.
, and
Schreier
,
M.
,
2012
, “
The Value of Crowdsourcing: Can Users Really Compete With Professionals in Generating New Product Ideas?
,”
J. Prod. Innovation Manage.
,
29
(
2
), pp.
245
256
.
44.
Johnson
,
D. G.
,
Genco
,
N.
,
Saunders
,
M. N.
,
Williams
,
P.
,
Seepersad
,
C. C.
, and
Hölttä-Otto
,
K.
,
2014
, “
An Experimental Investigation of the Effectiveness of Empathic Experience Design for Innovative Concept Generation
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
136
(
5
), p.
051009
.
45.
Kristensson
,
P.
, and
Magnusson
,
P. R.
,
2010
, “
Tuning Users' Innovativeness During Ideation
,”
Creativity Innovation Manage.
,
19
(
2
), pp.
147
159
.
46.
Ozkan
,
O.
, and
Dogan
,
F.
,
2013
, “
Cognitive Strategies of Analogical Reasoning in Design: Differences Between Expert and Novice Designers
,”
Des. Stud.
,
34
(
2
), pp.
161
192
.
47.
Bennett
,
R. C.
, and
Cooper
,
R. G.
,
1981
, “
The Misuse of Marketing: An American Tragedy
,”
Bus. Horiz.
,
24
(
6
), pp.
51
61
.
48.
Ulrich
,
K. T.
,
2011
,
Design: Creation of Artifacts in Society
,
Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
49.
Amabile
,
T. M.
,
1998
,
How to Kill Creativity
, Vol.
87
,
Harvard Business School Publishing
,
Boston, MA
.
50.
Trope
,
Y.
, and
Liberman
,
N.
,
2010
, “
Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance
,”
Psychol. Rev.
,
117
(
2
), pp.
440
463
.
51.
Shah
,
J. J.
,
Vargas-Hernandez
,
N.
, and
Smith
,
S. M.
,
2003
, “
Metrics for Measuring Ideation Effectiveness
,”
Des. Stud.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
111
134
.
52.
Steen
,
M.
,
Manschot
,
M.
, and
de Koning
,
N.
,
2011
, “
Benefits of Co-Design in Service Design Projects
,”
Int. J. Des.
,
5
(
2
), pp.
53
60
.http://publications.tno.nl/publication/100946/ebm9ll/steen-2011-benefits.pdf
53.
Kudrowitz
,
B. M.
, and
Wallace
,
D.
,
2013
, “
Assessing the Quality of Ideas From Prolific, Early-Stage Product Ideation
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
120
139
.
54.
Fink
,
A.
, and
Neubauer
,
A. C.
,
2006
, “
EEG Alpha Oscillations During the Performance of Verbal Creativity Tasks: Differential Effects of Sex and Verbal Intelligence
,”
Int. J. Psychophysiol.
,
62
(
1
), pp.
46
53
.
55.
Martindale
,
C.
,
1999
, “
Biological Bases of Creativity
,”
Handbook of Creativity
,
Cambridge University Press
, Cambridge, UK, pp.
137
152
.
56.
Isen
,
A. M.
,
Daubman
,
K.
, and
Nowicki
,
G.
,
1987
, “
Positive Affect Facilitates Creative Problem Solving
,”
J. Pers. Soc. Psychol.
,
52
(
6
), pp.
1122
1131
.
57.
Baird
,
B.
,
Smallwood
,
J.
,
Mrazek
,
M. D.
,
Kam
,
J. W. Y.
,
Franklin
,
M. S.
, and
Schooler
,
J. W.
,
2012
, “
Inspired by Distraction: Mind Wandering Facilitates Creative Incubation
,”
Psychol. Sci.
,
23
(
10
), pp.
1117
1122
.
58.
Diamond
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Executive Functions
,”
Annu. Rev. Psychol.
,
64
, pp.
135
168
.
59.
Malenka
,
R. C.
,
Nestler
,
E. J.
, and
Hyman
,
S. E.
,
2009
, “
Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control
,”
Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience
,
A
,
.
Sydor
, and
R. Y.
Brown
, eds.,
2nd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill Medical
,
New York
, Chap. 13, p.
318
.
60.
Runco
,
M. A.
, and
Chand
,
I.
,
1995
, “
Cognition and Creativity
,”
Educ. Psychol. Rev.
,
7
(
3
), pp.
243
267
.
61.
Ayaz
,
H.
,
Shewokis
,
P. A.
,
Bunce
,
S.
,
Izzetoglu
,
K.
,
Willems
,
B.
, and
Onaral
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Optical Brain Monitoring for Operator Training and Mental Workload Assessment
,”
Neuroimage
,
59
(
1
), pp.
36
47
.
62.
Nguyen
,
T. A.
, and
Zeng
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
A Physiological Study of Relationship Between Designer's Mental Effort and Mental Stress During Conceptual Design
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
,
54
, pp.
3
18
.
63.
Raviselvam
,
S.
,
Hölttä-Otto
,
K.
, and
Wood
,
K. L.
,
2016
, “
User Extreme Conditions to Enhance Designer Empathy and Creativity: Applications Using Visual Impairment
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2016-59602.
64.
Pahl
,
G.
, and
Beitz
,
W.
,
2013
,
Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach
,
Springer Science & Business Media
, Berlin.
65.
Rohrbach
,
B.
,
1969
, “
Creative by Rules–Method 635, A New Technique for Solving Problems
,”
Absatzwirtschaft
,
12
, pp.
73
75
.
66.
Hairston
,
W. D.
,
Whitaker
,
K. W.
,
Ries
,
A. J.
,
Vettel
,
J. M.
,
Bradford
,
J. C.
,
Kerick
,
S. E.
,
McDowell
,
K.
,
David Hairston
,
W.
,
Whitaker
,
K. W.
,
Ries
,
A. J.
,
Vettel
,
J. M.
,
Cortney Bradford
,
J.
,
Kerick
,
S. E.
, and
McDowell
,
K.
,
2014
, “
Usability of Four Commercially-Oriented EEG Systems
,”
J. Neural Eng.
,
11
(
4
), p.
046018
.
67.
Chlan
,
L.
,
1998
, “
Effectiveness of a Music Therapy Intervention on Relaxation and Anxiety for Patients Receiving Ventilatory Assistance
,”
Heart Lung: J. Acute Crit. Care
,
27
(
3
), pp.
169
176
.
68.
Carroll
,
E. A.
, and
Latulipe
,
C.
,
2012
, “
Triangulating the Personal Creative Experience: Self-Report, External Judgments, and Physiology
,”
Proc. Graph. Interface
,
2012
, pp.
53
60
.https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2305286
69.
Carroll
,
E. A.
,
2013
, “
Quantifying the Personal Creative Experience: Evaluation of Digital Creativity Support Tools Using Self-Report and Physiological Responses
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC.
70.
Hocever
,
D.
,
1979
, “
The Development of the Creative Behavior Inventory (CBI)
,”
Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association
, ERIC No.
ED170350
https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED170350.
71.
Berka
,
C.
,
Levendowski
,
D. J.
,
Cvetinovic
,
M. M.
,
Petrovic
,
M. M.
,
Davis
,
G.
,
Lumicao
,
M. N.
,
Zivkovic
,
V. T.
,
Popovic
,
M. V.
, and
Olmstead
,
R.
,
2004
, “
Real-Time Analysis of EEG Indexes of Alertness, Cognition, and Memory Acquired With a Wireless EEG Headset
,”
Int. J. Human-Comput. Interact.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
151
170
.
72.
Berka
,
C.
,
Levendowski
,
D. J.
,
Lumicao
,
M. N.
,
Yau
,
A.
,
Davis
,
G.
,
Zivkovic
,
V. T.
,
Olmstead
,
R. E.
,
Tremoulet
,
P. D.
, and
Craven
,
P. L.
,
2007
, “
EEG Correlates of Task Engagement and Mental Workload in Vigilance, Learning, and Memory Tasks
,”
Aviat., Space, Environ. Med.
,
78
(
5
), pp.
B231
B244
.https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2007/00000078/a00105s1/art00032
73.
de Guinea
,
A. O.
,
Titah
,
R.
, and
Léger
,
P.-M.
,
2013
, “
Measure for Measure: A Two Study Multi-Trait Multi-Method Investigation of Construct Validity in IS Research
,”
Comput. Human Behav.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
833
844
.
74.
Johnson
,
R. R.
,
Popovic
,
D. P.
,
Olmstead
,
R. E.
,
Stikic
,
M.
,
Levendowski
,
D. J.
, and
Berka
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Drowsiness/Alertness Algorithm Development and Validation Using Synchronized EEG and Cognitive Performance to Individualize a Generalized Model
,”
Biol. Psychol.
,
87
(
2
), pp.
241
50
.
75.
Ries
,
A. J.
,
Touryan
,
J.
,
Vettel
,
J.
,
McDowell
,
K.
, and
Hairston
,
W. D.
,
2014
, “
A Comparison of Electroencephalography Signals Acquired From Conventional and Mobile Systems
,”
J. Neurosci. Neuroeng.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
10
20
.
76.
Dinar
,
M.
,
Summers
,
J. D.
,
Shah
,
J.
, and
Park
,
Y-S.
,
2016
, “
Evaluation of Empirical Design Studies and Metrics
,”
Experimental Design Research
,
Springer
, Berlin, pp.
13
39
.
77.
Oman
,
S. K.
,
Tumer
,
I. Y.
,
Wood
,
K.
, and
Seepersad
,
C.
,
2013
, “
A Comparison of Creativity and Innovation Metrics and Sample Validation Through in-Class Design Projects
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
24
(
1
), pp.
65
92
.
78.
Reinig
,
B.
,
Briggs
,
R.
, and
Nunamaker
,
J.
,
2007
, “
On the Measurement of Ideation Quality
,”
J. Manage. Inf. Syst.
,
23
(
4
), pp.
143
161
.
79.
Kershaw
,
T. C.
,
Peterson
,
R. L.
,
McCarthy
,
M. A.
,
Young
,
A. P.
,
Seepersad
,
C. C.
,
Williams
,
P. T.
,
Hölttä-Otto
,
K.
, and
Bhowmick
,
S.
,
2015
, “
A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Examination of the Development of Innovation Capability in Undergraduate Engineering Students
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2015-47650
.
80.
Charyton
,
C.
,
Jagacinski
,
R. J.
, and
Merrill
,
J. A.
,
2008
, “
CEDA: A Research Instrument for Creative Engineering Design Assessment
,”
Psychol. Aesthetics, Creativity, Arts
,
2
(
3
), pp.
147
154
.
81.
Box
,
G. E.
, and
Cox
,
D. R.
,
1964
, “
An Analysis of Transformations
,”
J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B
,
26
(2), pp.
211
252
.
82.
Cohen
,
J.
,
1988
,
Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
,
2nd ed.
,
Erlbaum
,
Hillsdale, MI
.
83.
Restrepo
,
J.
, and
Christiaans
,
H.
,
2004
, “
Problem Structuring and Information Access in Design
,”
J. Des. Res.
,
4
(
2
), pp.
1551
1569
.
84.
Eastman
,
C.
,
Newstetter
,
W.
, and
McCracken
,
M.
,
2001
,
Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education
,
Elsevier Science
, New York.
85.
Tobias
,
S.
,
1994
, “
Interest, Prior Knowledge, and Learning
,”
Rev. Educ. Res.
,
64
(
1
), pp.
37
54
.
86.
Tsenn
,
J.
,
Atilola
,
O.
,
McAdams
,
D. A.
, and
Linsey
,
J. S.
,
2014
, “
The Effects of Time and Incubation on Design Concept Generation
,”
Des. Stud.
,
35
(
5
), pp.
500
526
.
87.
Burnap
,
A.
,
Ren
,
Y.
,
Gerth
,
R.
,
Papazoglou
,
G.
,
Gonzalez
,
R.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2015
, “
When Crowdsourcing Fails: A Study of Expertise on Crowdsourced Design Evaluation
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
3
), p.
031101
.
88.
Schreier
,
M.
,
Oberhauser
,
S.
, and
Prügl
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Lead Users and the Adoption and Diffusion of New Products: Insights From Two Extreme Sports Communities
,”
Mark. Lett.
,
18
(
1–2
), pp.
15
30
.
89.
Kudrowitz
,
B.
, and
Dippo
,
C.
,
2013
, “
When Does a Paper Clip Become a Sundial? Exploring the Progression of Originality in the Alternative Uses Test
,”
J. Integr. Des. Process Sci.
,
17
(
4
), pp.
3
18
.https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-integrated-design-and-process-science/jid17-4-02
90.
Liikkanen
,
L. A.
,
Björklund
,
T. A.
,
Hämäläinen
,
M. M.
, and
Koskinen
,
M. P.
,
2009
, “
Time Constraints in Design Idea Generation
,”
17th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 09)
, Vol.
9
, Palo Alto, CA, Aug. 24–27, pp. 81–90.
You do not currently have access to this content.