Large wind turbines typically have variable rotor speed capability that increases power production. However, the cost of this technology is more significant for small turbines, which have the highest cost-per-watt of energy produced. This work presents a low-cost system for applications where cost and reliability are of concern. The configuration utilizes the fixed-speed squirrel cage induction generator. It is combined with a variable ratio gearbox (VRG) that is based on the automated-manual automotive transmission. The design is simple, low cost and implements reliable components. The VRG increases efficiency in lower wind speeds through three discrete rotor speeds. In this study, it is implemented with active blades. The contribution of this work is a methodology that synthesizes the selection of the gearbox ratios with the control design. The design objectives increase the power production while mitigating the blade stress. Top-down dynamic programming reduces the computational expense of evaluating the performance of multiple gearbox combinations. The procedure is customizable to the wind conditions at an installation site. A case study is presented to demonstrate the ability of the strategy. It employs a 300 kW wind turbine drivetrain model that simulates power production. Two sets of wind data representing low and high wind speed installation sites were used as the input. The results suggest a VRG can improve energy production by up to 10% when the system operates below the rated wind speed. This is also accompanied by a slight increase in the blade-root stress. When operating above the rated speed, the stress decreases through the optimal selection of gear combinations.
A Methodology to Synthesize Gearbox and Control Design for Increased Power Production and Blade Root Stress Mitigation in a Small Wind Turbine1
Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received August 30, 2016; final manuscript received May 18, 2017; published online June 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Massimiliano Gobbi.
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Khakpour Nejadkhaki, H., Lall, A., and Hall, J. F. (June 27, 2017). "A Methodology to Synthesize Gearbox and Control Design for Increased Power Production and Blade Root Stress Mitigation in a Small Wind Turbine." ASME. J. Mech. Des. August 2017; 139(8): 081404. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4036998
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