Designers frequently utilize engineering equipment to create physical prototypes during the iterative concept generation and prototyping phases of design. Currently, evaluating designers' efficiency during prototype creation is a manual process that either involves observational or survey based approaches. Real-time feedback when using engineering equipment has the potential to enhance designers' efficiency or mitigate potential injuries that may result from incorrect use of equipment. Toward an automated approach to addressing these challenges, the authors of this work test the hypotheses that (i) there exists a difference in designers' comfort levels before and after they use a piece of engineering prototyping equipment and (ii) a machine learning model predicts the level of comfort a designer has while using engineering prototyping equipment with accuracies greater than random chance. It has been shown that the level of comfort that an individual has while completing a task impacts their performance. The authors investigate whether automatic tracking of designers' facial expressions during prototype creation predicts their level of comfort. A study, involving 37 participants using various engineering equipment, is used to validate the approach. The support vector machine (SVM) regression model yielded a range of R squared values from 0.82 to 0.86 for an equipment-specific model. A general model built to predict comfort level across all engineering equipment yielded an R squared value of 0.68. This work has the potential to transform the manner in which design teams utilize engineering equipment toward more efficient concept generation and prototype creation processes.

References

References
1.
Cinnéide
,
M. Ó.
, and
Nixon
,
P.
,
1999
, “
A Methodology for the Automated Introduction of Design Patterns
,”
1999 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance
(
ICSM’99
), Aug. 30–Sept. 2, pp.
463
472
.
2.
Römer
,
A.
,
Pache
,
M.
,
Weißhahn
,
G.
,
Lindemann
,
U.
, and
Hacker
,
W.
,
2001
, “
Effort-Saving Product Representations in Design—Results of a Questionnaire Survey
,”
Des. Stud.
,
22
(
6
), pp.
473
491
.
3.
Camburn
,
B.
,
Dunlap
,
B.
,
Gurjar
,
T.
,
Hamon
,
C.
,
Green
,
M.
,
Jensen
,
D.
,
Crawford
,
R.
,
Otto
,
K.
, and
Wood
,
K.
,
2015
, “
A Systematic Method for Design Prototyping
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
8
), p.
81102
.
4.
Lim
,
Y.-K.
,
Stolterman
,
E.
, and
Tenenberg
,
J.
,
2008
, “
The Anatomy of Prototypes: Prototypes as Filters, Prototypes as Manifestations of Design Ideas
,” ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. (
TOCHI
),
15
(
2
), p.
7
.
5.
Zuboff
,
S.
,
1988
,
In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power
,
Basic Books
,
New York
.
6.
Dul
,
J.
, and
Neumann
,
W. P.
,
2009
, “
Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies
,”
Appl. Ergon.
,
40
(
4
), pp.
745
752
.
7.
Teizer
,
J.
,
Venugopal
,
M.
, and
Walia
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Ultrawideband for Automated Real-Time Three-Dimensional Location Sensing for Workforce, Equipment, and Material Positioning and Tracking
,”
Transp. Res. Rec.: J. Transp. Res. Board
,
2081
, pp.
56
64
.
8.
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, and
Whitney
,
D. E.
,
1995
, “
Accelerating Product Development by the Exchange of Preliminary Product Design Information
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
117
(
4
), pp.
491
498
.
9.
Field
,
B. W.
,
2007
, “
Visualization, Intuition, and Mathematics Metrics as Predictors of Undergraduate Engineering Design Performance
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
129
(
7
), pp.
735
743
.
10.
Bordegoni
,
M.
,
Cugini
,
U.
,
Caruso
,
G.
, and
Polistina
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Mixed Prototyping for Product Assessment: A Reference Framework
,”
Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf. (IJIDeM)
,
3
(
3
), pp.
177
187
.
11.
Dong
,
A.
,
Hill
,
A. W.
, and
Agogino
,
A. M.
,
2004
, “
A Document Analysis Method for Characterizing Design Team Performance
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
126
(
3
), pp.
378
385
.
12.
Stempfle
,
J.
, and
Badke-Schaub
,
P.
,
2002
, “
Thinking in Design Teams-An Analysis of Team Communication
,”
Des. Stud.
,
23
(
5
), pp.
473
496
.
13.
Behoora
,
I.
, and
Tucker
,
C. S.
,
2015
, “
Machine Learning Classification of Design Team Members' Body Language Patterns for Real Time Emotional State Detection
,”
Des. Stud.
,
39
, pp.
100
127
.
14.
Munoz
,
D.
, and
Tucker
,
C. S.
,
2016
, “
Modeling the Semantic Structure of Textually-Derived Learning Content and Its Impact on Recipients Response States
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
138
(
4
), p.
042001
.
15.
Frith
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Role of Facial Expressions in Social Interactions
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B
,
364
(
1535
), pp.
3453
3458
.
16.
Kapoor
,
A.
, and
Picard
,
R. W.
,
2005
, “
Multimodal Affect Recognition in Learning Environments
,” 13th Annual
ACM
International Conference on Multimedia
, Singapore, Nov. 6–11, pp.
677
682
.
17.
Calvo
,
R. A.
, and
D'Mello
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Affect Detection: An Interdisciplinary Review of Models, Methods, and Their Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Affective Comput.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
18
37
.
18.
Linsey
,
J. S.
,
Tseng
,
I.
,
Fu
,
K.
,
Cagan
,
J.
,
Wood
,
K. L.
, and
Schunn
,
C.
,
2010
, “
A Study of Design Fixation, Its Mitigation and Perception in Engineering Design Faculty
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
132
(
4
), p.
041003
.
19.
Saragih
,
J. M.
,
Lucey
,
S.
, and
Cohn
,
J. F.
,
2010
, “
Deformable Model Fitting by Regularized Landmark Mean-Shift
,”
Int. J. Comput. Vision
,
91
(
2
), pp.
200
215
.
20.
Wang
,
L.
,
Shen
,
W.
,
Xie
,
H.
,
Neelamkavil
,
J.
, and
Pardasani
,
A.
,
2002
, “
Collaborative Conceptual Design—State of the Art and Future Trends
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
,
34
(
13
), pp.
981
996
.
21.
Powers
,
M. F.
, and
Jones-Walker
,
J.
,
2005
, “
An Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Improve Critical Thinking Among Pharmacy Students
,”
Am. J. Pharm. Educ.
,
69
(
1–5
), p.
516
.
22.
Hutchinson
,
H.
,
Mackay
,
W.
,
Westerlund
,
B.
,
Bederson
,
B. B.
,
Druin
,
A.
,
Plaisant
,
C.
,
Beaudouin-Lafon
,
M.
,
Conversy
,
S.
,
Evans
,
H.
, and
Hansen
,
H.
,
2003
, “
Technology Probes: Inspiring Design for and With Families
,”
SIGCHI
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Apr. 5–10, pp.
17
24
.
23.
Yang
,
M. C.
,
2005
, “
A Study of Prototypes, Design Activity, and Design Outcome
,”
Des. Stud.
,
26
(
6
), pp.
649
669
.
24.
Gero
,
J. S.
,
1990
, “
Design Prototypes: A Knowledge Representation Schema for Design
,”
AI Mag.
,
11
(
4
), p.
26
.
25.
Qian
,
L.
, and
Gero
,
J. S.
,
1996
, “
Function–Behavior–Structure Paths and Their Role in Analogy-Based Design
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng., Des., Anal. Manuf.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
289
312
.
26.
Gerber
,
E.
, and
Carroll
,
M.
,
2012
, “
The Psychological Experience of Prototyping
,”
Des. Stud.
,
33
(
1
), pp.
64
84
.
27.
Fadier
,
E.
, and
De la Garza
,
C.
,
2006
, “
Safety Design: Towards a New Philosophy
,”
Saf. Sci.
,
44
(
1
), pp.
55
73
.
28.
Pavlovic-Veselinovic
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Ergonomics as a Missing Part of Sustainability
,”
Work
,
49
(
3
), pp.
395
399
.
29.
Jang
,
J.
, and
Schunn
,
C. D.
,
2012
, “
Physical Design Tools Support and Hinder Innovative Engineering Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
134
(
4
), p.
41001
.
30.
Busby
,
J. S.
,
1998
, “
The Neglect of Feedback in Engineering Design Organisations
,”
Des. Stud.
,
19
(
1
), pp.
103
117
.
31.
Booth
,
J. W.
,
Taborda
,
E. A.
,
Ramani
,
K.
, and
Reid
,
T.
,
2016
, “
Interventions for Teaching Sketching Skills and Reducing Inhibition for Novice Engineering Designers
,”
Des. Stud.
,
43
, pp.
1
23
.
32.
Busseri
,
M. A.
, and
Palmer
,
J. M.
,
2000
, “
Improving Teamwork: The Effect of Self-Assessment on Construction Design Teams
,”
Des. Stud.
,
21
(
3
), pp.
223
238
.
33.
Adams
,
R. S.
,
Turns
,
J.
, and
Atman
,
C. J.
,
2003
, “
Educating Effective Engineering Designers: The Role of Reflective Practice
,”
Des. Stud.
,
24
(
3
), pp.
275
294
.
34.
Austin-Breneman
,
J.
,
Honda
,
T.
, and
Yang
,
M. C.
,
2012
, “
A Study of Student Design Team Behaviors in Complex System Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
134
(
12
), p.
124504
.
35.
Lauche
,
K.
,
2005
, “
Job Design for Good Design Practice
,”
Des. Stud.
,
26
(
2
), pp.
191
213
.
36.
Bernal
,
M.
,
Haymaker
,
J. R.
, and
Eastman
,
C.
,
2015
, “
On the Role of Computational Support for Designers in Action
,”
Des. Stud.
,
41
, pp.
163
182
.
37.
Dinar
,
M.
,
Shah
,
J. J.
,
Cagan
,
J.
,
Leifer
,
L.
,
Linsey
,
J.
,
Smith
,
S. M.
, and
Hernandez
,
N. V.
,
2015
, “
Empirical Studies of Designer Thinking: Past, Present, and Future
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
2
), p.
21101
.
38.
McDuff
,
D.
,
El Kaliouby
,
R.
,
Senechal
,
T.
,
Demirdjian
,
D.
, and
Picard
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Automatic Measurement of Ad Preferences From Facial Responses Gathered Over the Internet
,”
Image Vision Comput.
,
32
(
10
), pp.
630
640
.
39.
Ekman
,
P.
,
1992
, “
An Argument for Basic Emotions
,”
Cognit. Emotion
,
6
(
3–4
), pp.
169
200
.
40.
Pantic
,
M.
, and
Rothkrantz
,
L. J.
,
2000
, “
Automatic Analysis of Facial Expressions: The State of the Art
,”
IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
,
22
(
12
), pp.
1424
1445
.
41.
Zeng
,
Z.
,
Tu
,
J.
,
Liu
,
M.
,
Zhang
,
T.
,
Rizzolo
,
N.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Huang
,
T. S.
,
Roth
,
D.
, and
Levinson
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Bimodal HCI-Related Affect Recognition
,”
6th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces
, State College, PA, Oct. 13–15, pp.
137
143
.
42.
Khan
,
F. A.
,
Weippl
,
E. R.
, and
Tjoa
,
A. M.
,
2009
, “
Integrated Approach for the Detection of Learning Styles and Affective States
,”
World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications
, pp.
753
761
.
44.
Dimitriadou
,
A. E.
,
Hornik
,
K.
,
Leisch
,
F.
,
Meyer
,
D.
,
Weingessel
,
A.
, and
Leisch
,
M. F.
,
2006
, “
The e1071 Package, Misc. Functions of Department of Statistics (e1071)
,” TU Wien, Wien Austria.
45.
Block
,
J.
,
1995
, “
Going Beyond the Five Factors Given: Rejoinder to Costa and McCrae (1995) and Goldberg and Saucier (1995)
,”
Psychol. Bull.
,
117
(
2
), pp.
226
229
.
46.
Meyer
,
D.
,
Dimitriadou
,
E.
,
Hornik
,
K.
,
Weingessel
,
A.
, and
Leisch
,
F.
,
2014
, “
E1071: Misc. Functions of the Department of Statistics (e1071)
,” R package version 1.6-2,
TU Wien
,
Wien
,
Austria
.
47.
Sakia
,
R. M.
,
1992
, “
The Box-Cox Transformation Technique: A Review
,”
The Statistician
,
41
(
2
), pp.
169
178
.
You do not currently have access to this content.