Modular design is an effective approach to shorten lead-time and reduce cost for development of complex products and systems (CoPS). Because the physical details of the product are not available at the conceptual design stage, considerations in the downstream product development phases such as manufacturing and assembly cannot be used for partition of modules at the conceptual design stage. Since design solution at the conceptual design stage can be modeled by functions and relationships among these functions such as function flows including information flows, material flows, and energy flows, a novel approach is introduced in this research for function module partition of CoPS through community detection using weighted and directed complex networks (WDCN). First, the function structure is obtained and mapped into a weighted and directed complex network. Based on the similarity between behaviors of communities in WDCN and behaviors of modules in CoPS, a LinkRank-based community detection approach is employed for function module partition through optimization with simulated annealing. The function module partition for the power mechanism in a large tonnage crawler crane is conducted as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

References

References
1.
Hansen
,
K. L.
, and
Rush
,
H.
,
1998
, “
Hotspots in Complex Product Systems: Emerging Issues in Innovation Management
,”
Technovation
,
18
(
9
), pp.
555
561
.
2.
Miller
,
R.
,
Hobday
,
M.
,
Leroux-Demers
,
T.
, and
Olleros
,
X.
,
1995
, “
Innovation in Complex Systems Industries: The Case of Flight Simulation
,”
Ind. Corporate Change
,
4
(
2
), pp.
363
400
.
3.
Prencipe
,
A.
,
2000
, “
Breadth and Depth of Technological Capabilities in CoPS: The Case of the Aircraft Engine Control System
,”
Res. Policy
,
29
(
7
), pp.
895
911
.
4.
Hobday
,
M.
,
Rush
,
H.
, and
Tidd
,
J.
,
2000
, “
Innovation in Complex Products and Systems
,”
Res. Policy
,
29
(
7–8
), pp.
793
804
.
5.
Sosa
,
M. E.
,
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, and
Rowles
,
C. M.
,
2004
, “
The Misalignment of Product Architecture and Organizational Structure in Complex Product Development
,”
Manage. Sci.
,
50
(
12
), pp.
1674
1689
.
6.
Feng
,
G.
,
Cui
,
D.
,
Wang
,
C.
, and
Yu
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Integrated Data Management in Complex Product Collaborative Design
,”
Comput. Ind.
,
60
(
1
), pp.
48
63
.
7.
Huang
,
J.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Chu
,
X.
, and
Chu
,
D.
,
2015
, “
An Integrated Top-Down Design Process Evaluation Approach of Complex Products and Systems Based on Hierarchical Design Structure Matrix
,”
Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf.
,
28
(
10
), pp.
1015
1029
.
8.
Tuli
,
P.
, and
Shankar
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Collaborative and Lean New Product Development Approach: A Case Study in the Automotive Product Design
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
53
(
8
), pp.
2457
2471
.
9.
Gershenson
,
J. K.
,
Prasad
,
G. J.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
,
2004
, “
Product Modularity: Measures and Design Methods
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
15
(
1
), pp.
33
51
.
10.
Persson
,
M.
, and
Åhlström
,
P.
,
2006
, “
Managerial Issues in Modularising Complex Products
,”
Technovation
,
26
(
11
), pp.
1201
1209
.
11.
Gao
,
F.
,
Xiao
,
G.
,
Pan
,
S.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Method of Product Function Module Partition
,”
Chin. J. Mech. Eng.
,
43
(
5
), pp.
29
35
.
12.
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Wood
,
K. L.
,
2000
, “
Development of a Functional Basis for Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
122
(
4
), pp.
359
370
.
13.
Erden
,
M. S.
,
Komoto
,
H.
,
Beek
,
T. J. V.
,
D'Amelio
,
V.
,
Echavarria
,
E.
, and
Tomiyama
,
T.
,
2008
, “
A Review of Function Modeling: Approaches and Applications
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
22
(
2
), pp.
147
169
.
14.
Szykman
,
S.
,
Racz
,
J.
,
Bochenek
,
C.
, and
Sriram
,
R. D.
,
2000
, “
A Web-Based System for Design Artifact Modeling
,”
Des. Stud.
,
21
(
2
), pp.
145
165
.
15.
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Wood
,
K. L.
, and
Crawford
,
R. H.
,
2000
, “
A Heuristic Method for Identifying Modules for Product Architectures
,”
Des. Stud.
,
21
(
1
), pp.
5
31
.
16.
Dahmus
,
J. B.
,
Gonzalez-Zugasti
,
J. P.
, and
Otto
,
K. N.
,
2001
, “
Modular Product Architecture
,”
Des. Stud.
,
22
(
5
), pp.
409
424
.
17.
Yu
,
S.
,
Yang
,
Q.
,
Tao
,
J.
,
Tian
,
X.
, and
Yin
,
F.
,
2011
, “
Product Modular Design Incorporating Life Cycle Issues-Group Genetic Algorithm (GGA) Based Method
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
19
(
9–10
), pp.
1016
1032
.
18.
Yang
,
G.
,
2012
, “
Module Partition Method Based on Complex Network Theory
,”
J. Graphics
,
33
(
6
), pp.
69
75
.
19.
Li
,
Y.
,
Chu
,
X.
,
Chu
,
D.
, and
Liu
,
Q.
,
2014
, “
An Integrated Module Partition Approach for Complex Products and Systems Based on Weighted Complex Networks
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
52
(
15
), pp.
4608
4622
.
20.
Kim
,
Y.
,
Son
,
S. W.
, and
Jeong
,
H.
,
2010
, “
Finding Communities in Directed Networks
,”
Phys. Rev. E.
,
81
(
1
), p.
016103
.
21.
Boccaletti
,
S.
,
Latora
,
V.
,
Moreno
,
Y.
,
Chavez
,
M.
, and
Hwang
,
D.-U.
,
2006
, “
Complex Networks: Structure and Dynamics
,”
Phys. Rep.
,
424
(
4
), pp.
175
308
.
22.
Yoon
,
J.
,
Blumer
,
A.
, and
Lee
,
K.
,
2006
, “
An Algorithm for Modularity Analysis of Directed and Weighted Biological Networks Based on Edge-Betweenness Centrality
,”
Bioinformatics
,
22
(
24
), pp.
3106
3108
.
23.
Jeżewski
,
W.
,
2004
, “
Scaling in Weighted Networks and Complex Systems
,”
Physica A
,
337
(
1–2
), pp.
336
356
.
24.
Zhang
,
X.
,
Sun
,
G. Q.
,
Zhu
,
Y. X.
,
Ma
,
J.
, and
Jin
,
Z.
,
2013
, “
Epidemic Dynamics on Semi-Directed Complex Networks
,”
Math. Biosci.
246
(
2
), pp.
242
251
.
25.
Rosen
,
Y.
, and
Louzoun
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
Directionality of Real World Networks as Predicted by Path Length in Directed and Undirected Graphs
,”
Physica A
,
401
(
5
), pp.
118
129
.
26.
Fortunato
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Community Detection in Graphs
,”
Phys. Rep.
,
486
(
3–5
), pp.
75
174
.
27.
Malliaros
,
F. D.
, and
Vazirgiannis
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Clustering and Community Detection in Directed Networks: A Survey
,”
Phys. Rep.
,
533
(
4
), pp.
95
142
.
28.
Guimerà
,
R.
,
Sales-Pardo
,
M.
, and
Amaral
,
L. A. N.
,
2007
, “
Module Identification in Bipartite and Directed Networks
,”
Phys. Rev. E.
,
76
(
3
), p.
036102
.
29.
Satuluri
,
V.
, and
Parthasarathy
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Symmetrizations for Clustering Directed Graphs
,”
14th International Conference on Extending Database Technology
, ACM, New York, pp.
343
354
.
30.
Fan
,
B.
, and
Qi
,
G.
,
2007
, “
Modeling of Product Family Structure and Module Analysis Method Based on Complex Network
,”
Chin. J. Mech. Eng.
,
43
(
3
), pp.
187
192
.
31.
Newman
,
M. E. J.
,
2004
, “
Analysis of Weighted Networks
,”
Phys. Rev. E
,
70
(
2
), p.
056131
.
32.
Langville
,
A. N.
, and
Meyer
,
C. D.
,
2011
,
Google's PageRank and Beyond: The Science of Search Engine Rankings
,
Princeton University Press
,
Princeton, NJ
.
33.
Van Beek
,
T. J.
,
Erden
,
M. S.
, and
Tomiyama
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Modular Design of Mechatronic Systems With Function Modeling
,”
Mechatronics
,
20
(
8
), pp.
850
863
.
34.
Pahl
,
G.
,
Beitz
,
W.
,
Feldhusen
,
J.
, and
Grote
,
K. H.
,
2007
,
Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach
,
Springer
,
Berlin
.
35.
Arenas
,
A.
,
Duch
,
J.
,
Fernández
,
A.
, and
Gómez
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Size Reduction of Complex Networks Preserving Modularity
,”
New J. Phys.
,
9
(
6
), p.
176
.
36.
Newman
,
M. E.
,
2004
, “
Fast Algorithm for Detecting Community Structure in Networks
,”
Phys. Rev. E
,
69
(
6
), p.
066133
.
37.
Blondel
,
V. D.
,
Guillaume
,
J. L.
,
Lambiotte
,
R.
, and
Lefebvre
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Fast Unfolding of Communities in Large Networks
,”
J. Stat. Mech. Theory Exp.
,
30
(
2
), pp.
155
168
.
38.
Kirkpatrick
,
S.
,
Gelatt
,
C. D.
, Jr.
, and
Vecchi
,
M. P.
,
1983
, “
Optimization by Simulated Annealing
,”
Science
,
220
(
4598
), pp.
671
680
.
You do not currently have access to this content.