Car sharing services promise “green” transportation systems. Two vehicle technologies offer marketable, sustainable sharing: autonomous vehicles (AVs) eliminate customer requirements for car pick-up and return, and battery electric vehicles entail zero emissions. Designing an autonomous electric vehicle (AEV) fleet must account for the relationships among fleet operations, charging station (CS) operations, electric powertrain performance, and consumer demand. This paper presents a system design optimization framework integrating four subsystem problems: fleet size and assignment schedule; number and locations of charging stations; vehicle powertrain requirements; and service fees. We also compare an AEV service and autonomous vehicle (AV) service with gasoline engines. A case study for an autonomous fleet operating in Ann Arbor, MI, is used to examine AEV and AV sharing systems profitability and feasibility for a variety of market scenarios. The results provide practical insights for service system decision makers.

References

References
1.
Millard-Ball
,
A.
,
2005
,
Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds
, Vol. 108, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
2.
Shaheen
,
P.
, and
Cohen
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Innovative Mobility Carsharing Outlook
,” University of Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
3.
Zipcar
,
2015
, “
Zipcar
,” Zipcar, Boston, MA, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, http://www.zipcar.com
4.
Car2go
,
2015
, “
Car2go
,” Car2go, Stuttgart, Germany, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, https://www.car2go.com
5.
Litman
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions
,” Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, p.
28
.
6.
GM
,
2016
, “
GM and Lyft to Shape the Future of Mobility
,” GM newsroom, San Francisco, CA, accessed, Jan. 4, 2016, http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/home.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2016/Jan/0104-lyft.html
7.
Uber
,
2015
, “
Uber Taxi
,” Uber, San Francisco, CA, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, https://www.uber.com
8.
Burns
,
L. D.
,
Jordan
,
W. C.
, and
Scarborough
,
B. A.
,
2013
, “
Transforming Personal Mobility
,” Earth Island Institute, Columbia University, New York.
9.
Fagnant
,
D. J.
, and
Kockelman
,
K. M.
,
2014
, “
The Travel and Environmental Implications of Shared Autonomous Vehicles, Using Agent-Based Model Scenarios
,”
Transp. Res. Part C: Emerging Technol.
,
40
, pp.
1
13
.
10.
Kang
,
N.
,
Feinberg
,
F. M.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2015
, “
Autonomous Electric Vehicle Sharing System Design
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2015-46491.
11.
Chen
,
T. D.
,
Kockelman
,
K. M.
, and
Hanna
,
J. P.
,
2016
, “
Operations of a Shared, Autonomous, Electric Vehicle Fleet: Implications of Vehicle & Charging Infrastructure Decisions
,” Proceedings of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 10–14.
12.
IHS
,
2014
, “
Emerging Technologies: Autonomous Cars–Not If, but When
,” IHS Automotive Report, IHS Markit Global, London.
13.
Chen
,
T. D.
, and
Kockelman
,
K. M.
,
2016
, “
Management of a Shared, Autonomous Electric Vehicle Fleet: Implications of Pricing Schemes
,”
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
,
2572
, p. 37.
14.
Jorge
,
D.
, and
Correia
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Carsharing Systems Demand Estimation and Defined Operations: A Literature Review
,”
EJTIR
,
13
(
3
), pp.
201
220
.
15.
Kang
,
N.
,
Feinberg
,
F. M.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2015
, “
Integrated Decision Making in Electric Vehicle and Charging Station Location Network Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
6
), p.
061402
.
16.
Michalek
,
J. J.
,
Feinberg
,
F. M.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2005
, “
Linking Marketing and Engineering Product Design Decisions Via Analytical Target Cascading
,”
J. Prod. Innovation Manage.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
42
62
.
17.
Lewis
,
K. E.
,
Chen
,
W.
,
Schmidt
,
L. C.
, and
Press
,
A.
,
2006
,
Decision Making in Engineering Design
,
ASME Press
,
New York
.
18.
Frischknecht
,
B. D.
,
Whitefoot
,
K.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2010
, “
On the Suitability of Econometric Demand Models in Design for Market Systems
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
132
(
12
), p.
121007
.
19.
Kang
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Multidomain Demand Modeling in Design for Market Systems
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
20.
Kang
,
N.
,
Feinberg
,
F. M.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2013
, “
A Framework for Enterprise-Driven Product Service Systems Design
,”
19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13)
, Seoul, Korea, Aug. 19–22, pp.
297
308
.
21.
Kang
,
N.
,
Ren
,
Y.
,
Feinberg
,
F. M.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2016
, “
Public Investment and Electric Vehicle Design: A Model-based Market Analysis Framework With Application to a USA-China Comparison Study
,”
Des. Sci.
,
2
, p.
e6
.
22.
Santos
,
A.
,
McGuckin
,
N.
,
Nakamoto
,
H. Y.
,
Gray
,
D.
, and
Liss
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Summary of Travel Trends: 2009 National Household Travel Survey
,” U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Technical
Report No. FHWA-PL-ll-022
.
23.
MathWorks
,
2015
, “
Matlab r2013a
,” MathWorks, Natick, MA, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, http://www.mathworks.com
24.
Tansel
,
B. C.
,
Francis
,
R. L.
, and
Lowe
,
T. J.
,
1983
, “
State of the Art-Location on Networks: A Survey—Part i: The p-Center and p-Median Problems
,”
Manage. Sci.
,
29
(
4
), pp.
482
497
.
25.
Schroeder
,
A.
, and
Traber
,
T.
,
2012
, “
The Economics of Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
,”
Energy Policy
,
43
, pp.
136
144
.
26.
EIA
,
2014
, “
Electric Power Monthly With Data for January 2014
,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/current_year/january2014.pdf
27.
GasBuddy
,
2014
, “
Michigan Gas Price
,” GasBuddy, Boston, MA, accessed March 17, 2016, http://www.michigangasprices.com
28.
AMESim
,
2015
, “
AMESim
,” Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software Inc., Munich, Germany, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, https://www.plm.automation.siemens.com/en_us/products/lms/imaginelab/amesim/
29.
EERE
,
2011
, “
Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity—2011 Nissan Leaf—Beginning of Test Battery Testing Results
,” U.S. Department of Energy, https://avt.inl.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/fsev/batteryleaf0356.pdf
30.
EERE
,
2011
,
“Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity—
2011
Nissan Leaf—Baseline Testing Results,” U.S. Department of Energy, https://avt.inl.gov/vehicle-button/2011-nissan-leaf
31.
Simpson
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology
,”
22nd International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
, Yokohama, Japan, Oct. 23–28,
Paper No. NREL/CP-540-40485
.
32.
Rossi
,
P.
,
Allenby
,
G.
, and
McCulloch
,
R.
,
2005
,
Bayesian Statistics and Marketing
,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
33.
Orme
,
B.
,
2009
, “
The CBC/HB System for Hierarchical Bayes Estimation Version 5.0 Technical Paper
,” Technical Paper Series, Sawtooth Software, Sequim, WA.
34.
Citycarshare
,
2015
, “
Citycarshare
,” Carma, San Francisco, CA, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, https://www.gocarma.com/carshare/
35.
Green
,
P.
, and
Krieger
,
A.
,
1996
, “
Individualized Hybrid Models for Conjoint Analysis
,”
Manage. Sci.
,
42
(
6
), pp.
850
867
.
36.
Michalek
,
J. J.
,
Ebbes
,
P.
,
Adigüzel
,
F.
,
Feinberg
,
F. M.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2011
, “
Enhancing Marketing With Engineering: Optimal Product Line Design for Heterogeneous Markets
,”
Int. J. Res. Mark.
,
28
(
1
), pp.
1
12
.
37.
Clearvoice
,
2015
, “
Clearvoice Research
,” Clearvoice Research, Denver, CO, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, http://www.clearvoiceresearch.com
38.
EIA
,
2015
, “
How Much Carbon Dioxide is Produced Per Kilowatthour When Generating Electricity With Fossil Fuels?
,” EIA, Washington, DC, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=74&t=11
39.
EPA
,
2015
, “
Social Cost of Carbon
,” U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/economics/scc.html
40.
Kang
,
N.
,
Bayrak
,
A. E.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2016
, “
A Real Options Approach to Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architecture Design for Flexibility
,” ASME Paper No. DETC2016-60247.
41.
Cardin
,
M.-A.
, and
Hu
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Analyzing the Tradeoffs Between Economies of Scale, Time-Value of Money, and Flexibility in Design Under Uncertainty: Study of Centralized Versus Decentralized Waste-to-Energy Systems
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011401
.
42.
Cities
,
C.
,
2012
, “
Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts
,” U.S. Department of Energy
Publication No. DOE/GO-102012-3275
.
You do not currently have access to this content.