Birkhoff proposed that order divided by complexity is a formula for esthetic measurement. In that context, this work proposes to measure order with a method to quantify Gestalt principles in 2D product representations. These principles establish how humans visually group elements of a shape together, and they have been used in architecture, product design and art as guidelines for a good design. A human subject study was conducted to test the hypothesis that if complexity is held constant across different versions of the same basic concept, Gestalt can serve as a direct measurement of the relative esthetics of those candidate designs. In a survey, subjects were asked to evaluate their preferences for multiple individual 2D representations of automotive wheel rims from a variety of styles. The wheel rims within each style were designed in pairs, one pair with lower and one pair with higher Gestalt. Complexity was held constant by only comparing subject ratings within wheel rim styles. The results show that a positive change in Gestalt has a positive effect on aesthetic subject preference and that preferences are not significantly different for designs differing in geometry but having the same Gestalt. The implications of these results for designers and for future work are discussed.

References

References
1.
Nagamachi
,
M.
,
2010
,
Kansei/Affective Engineering
,
CRC
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
2.
Lehrer
,
J.
,
2010
,
How We Decide
,
1 reprint ed.
,
Mariner Books
,
New York
.
3.
Moon
,
P.
, and
Spencer
,
D. E.
,
1944
, “
Aesthetic Measure Applied to Color Harmony
,”
J. Opt. Soc. Am.
,
34
(
4
), pp.
234
242
.
4.
Hsiao
,
S.-W.
,
Chiu
,
F.-Y.
, and
Chen
,
C. S.
,
2008
, “
Applying Aesthetics Measurement to Product Design
,”
Int. J. Ind. Ergon.
,
38
(
1112
), pp.
910
920
.
5.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Boatwright
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Quantifying Aesthetic Form Preference in a Utility Function
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
(
6
), p.
061001
.
6.
Sofiane Achiche
,
S. A.-K.
,
2011
, “
Genetic Fuzzy Modeling of User Perception of Three-Dimensional Shapes
,”
AI EDAM
,
25
(1), pp.
93
107
.
7.
Reid
,
T. N.
,
Gonzalez
,
R. D.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2010
, “
Quantification of Perceived Environmental Friendliness for Vehicle Silhouette Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
132
(
10
), p.
101010
.
8.
Tseng
,
I.
,
Kotovsky
,
K.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Concurrent Optimization of Computationally Learned Stylistic Form and Functional Goals
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
134
(
11
), p.
111006
.
9.
Sylcott
,
B.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Tabibnia
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Understanding Consumer Tradeoffs Between Form and Function Through Metaconjoint and Cognitive Neuroscience Analyses
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
135
(
10
), p.
101002
.
10.
Breemen
,
E. J. J. V.
,
Horvth
,
I.
,
Knoop
,
W. G.
,
Vergeest
,
J. S. M.
, and
Pham
,
B.
,
1998
, “
Developing a Methodology for Design for Aesthetics Based on Analogy of Communication
,” ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference.
11.
Schütte
,
S.
,
2005
, “
Engineering Emotional Values in Product Design: Kansei Engineering in Development
,” Ph.D. thesis, Linköping University, Machine Design, The Institute of Technology, Linköping, Sweden.
12.
Yanagisawa
,
H.
, and
Fukuda
,
S.
,
2005
, “
Interactive Reduct Evolutional Computation for Aesthetic Design
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.
13.
Birkhoff
,
G. D.
,
1933
,
Aesthetic Measure
,
Harvard University
,
Cambridge, MA
.
14.
Wertheimer
,
M.
,
1923
, “
Untersuchungen zur lehre von der gestalt
,”
Psycol. Forsch.
,
2
(
4
), pp.
301
350
.
15.
Norman
,
D.
,
2005
,
Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things
,
1st ed.
,
Basic Books
,
New York
.
16.
Lauer
,
D.
, and
Pentak
,
S.
,
2011
,
Design Basics
, 8th ed.,
Cengage Learning
, Boston, MA.
17.
Lugo
,
J.
,
Batill
,
S.
, and
Carlson
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Modeling Product Form Preference Using Gestalt Principles, Semantic Space, and Kansei
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2012-70434, pp.
529
539
.
18.
Lugo
,
J. E.
,
Schmiedeler
,
J. P.
,
Batill
,
S. M.
, and
Carlson
,
L.
,
2015
, “
Quantification of Classical Gestalt Principles in Two-Dimensional Product Representations
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
9
), p.
094502
.
19.
Wertheimer
,
M.
, and
Ellis
,
W. D.
,
1938
, “
Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms
,”
A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology
,
Harcourt, Brace and Co.
,
New York
, pp.
71
88
.
20.
Koffka
,
K.
,
1935
,
Principles of Gestalt Psychology
,
Harcourt Brace and Co.
,
Rahway, NJ
.
21.
Sarkar
,
S.
, and
Boyer
,
K.
,
1994
, “
A Computational Structure for Preattentive Perceptual Organization: Graphical Enumeration and Voting Methods
,”
IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
246
267
.
22.
Ching
,
F.
,
1995
,
A Visual Dictionary of Architecture
,
Wiley
, Hoboken, NJ.
23.
Palmer
,
S. E.
,
1999
,
Vision Science: Photons to Phenomenology
,
MIT
,
Cambridge, MA
.
24.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Boatwright
,
P.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Identifying Product Shape Relationships Using Principal Component Analysis
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
18
(
4
), pp.
163
180
.
25.
Kovcs
,
I.
, and
Julesz
,
B.
,
1993
, “
A Closed Curve is Much More Than an Incomplete One: Effect of Closure in Figure-Ground Segmentation
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
,
90
(
16
), pp.
7495
7497
.
26.
Zwickel
,
T.
,
Wachtler
,
T.
, and
Eckhorn
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Coding the Presence of Visual Objects in a Recurrent Neural Network of Visual Cortex
,”
Biosystems
,
89
(
13
), pp.
216
226
.
27.
Wörgötter
,
F.
,
Krger
,
N.
,
Pugeault
,
N.
,
Calow
,
D.
,
Lappe
,
M.
,
Pauwels
,
K.
,
Van Hulle
,
M.
,
Tan
,
S.
, and
Johnston
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Early Cognitive Vision: Using Gestalt-Laws for Task-Dependent, Active Image-Processing
,”
Nat. Comput.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
293
321
.
28.
Elder
,
J.
, and
Zucker
,
S.
,
1993
, “
The Effect of Contour Closure on the Rapid Discrimination of Two-Dimensional Shapes
,”
Vision Res.
,
33
(
7
), pp.
981
991
.
29.
Veryzer
,
R. W.
, and
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
,
1998
, “
The Influence of Unity and Prototypicality on Aesthetic Responses to New Product Designs
,”
J. Consum. Res.
,
24
(
4
), pp.
374
385
.
30.
Hsiao
,
S.-W.
, and
Chou
,
J.-R.
,
2006
, “
A Gestalt-Like Perceptual Measure for Home Page Design Using a Fuzzy Entropy Approach
,”
Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud.
,
64
(
2
), pp.
137
156
.
31.
Aesthetics
,
2013
, “
Merriam-Webster
,” http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aesthetics
32.
Davis
,
R. C.
,
1936
, “
An Evaluation and Test of birkhoff's Aesthetic Measure Formula
,”
J. Gen. Psychol.
,
15
(2), pp. 231–240.
33.
Rigau
,
J.
,
Feixas
,
M.
, and
Sbert
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Conceptualizing Birkhoff's Aesthetic Measure Using Shannon Entropy and Kolmogorov Complexity
,”
Proceedings of the Third Eurographics Conference on Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging, Computational Aesthetics'07
,
Eurographics Association
, Banff, Alberta, Canada, Jun. 20–22, pp.
105
112
.
34.
Yao
,
L.
,
Suryanarayan
,
P.
,
Qiao
,
M.
,
Wang
,
J. Z.
, and
Li
,
J.
,
2012
, “
OSCAR: On-Site Composition and Aesthetics Feedback Through Exemplars for Photographers
,”
Int. J. Comput. Vision
,
96
(
3
), pp.
353
383
.
35.
Datta
,
R.
,
Joshi
,
D.
,
Li
,
J.
, and
Wang
,
J. Z.
,
2006
, “
Studying Aesthetics in Photographic Images Using a Computational Approach
,”
Computer Vision ECCV 2006
,
A.
Leonardis
,
H.
Bischof
, and
A.
Pinz
, eds., No. 3953 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
288
301
.
36.
Wong
,
L.-K.
, and
Low
,
K.-L.
,
2009
, “
Saliency-Enhanced Image Aesthetics Class Prediction
,”
16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)
, pp.
997
1000
.
37.
Wu
,
Y.
,
Bauckhage
,
C.
, and
Thurau
,
C.
,
2010
, “
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Predicting Aesthetic Image Labels
,”
20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)
, pp.
1586
1589
.
38.
Orendovici
,
R.
, and
Wang
,
J. Z.
,
2010
, “
Training Data Collection System for a Learning-Based Photographic Aesthetic Quality Inference Engine
,”
Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia
, ACM, Firenze, Italy, Oct. 25–29, pp.
1575
1578
.
39.
Schmidhuber
,
J.
,
1997
, “
Low-Complexity Art
,”
Leonardo
,
30
(
2
), pp.
97
103
.
40.
Schmidhuber
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Simple Algorithmic Principles of Discovery, Subjective Beauty, Selective Attention, Curiosity and Creativity
,”
Discovery Science
,
V.
Corruble
,
M.
Takeda
, and
E.
Suzuki
, eds.,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
26
38
.
41.
Sylcott
,
B.
,
Michalek
,
J. J.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Towards Understanding the Role of Interaction Effects in Visual Conjoint Analysis
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2013-12622, p.
V03AT03A012
.
42.
Paolacci
,
G.
,
Chandler
,
J.
, and
Ipeirotis
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Running Experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk
,”
Judgment Decis. Making
,
5
(
5
), pp. 411–419.
43.
Buhrmester
,
M.
,
Kwang
,
T.
, and
Gosling
,
S. D.
,
2011
, “
Amazon's Mechanical Turk a New Source of Inexpensive, Yet High-Quality, Data?
,”
Perspect. Psychol. Sci.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
3
5
.
44.
Mason
,
W.
, and
Suri
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Conducting Behavioral Research on Amazon's Mechanical Turk
,”
Behav. Res. Methods
,
44
(
1
), pp.
1
23
.
45.
Horton
,
J. J.
, and
Chilton
,
L. B.
,
2010
, “
The Labor Economics of Paid Crowdsourcing
,”
Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce
, (EC),
ACM
, Cambridge, MA, Jun. 7–11, p.
209218
.
You do not currently have access to this content.