This paper is mostly aimed at analyzing optimum profile modifications (PMs) in planetary gears (PGTs) with regard to dynamic mesh forces. To this end, a dynamic model is presented based on 3D two-node gear elements connected to deformable ring-gears discretized into beam elements. Double-helical gears are simulated as two gear elements of opposite hands which are linked by shaft elements. Symmetric tip relief on external and internal gear meshes are introduced as time-varying normal deviations along the lines of contact and time-varying mesh stiffness functions are deduced from Wrinckler foundation models. The equations of motion are solved by coupling a Newmark time-step integration scheme and a contact algorithm to account for possible partial or total contact losses. Symmetric linear PMs for helical and double-helical PGTs are optimized by using a genetic algorithm with the objective of minimizing dynamic tooth loads over a speed range. Finally, the sensitivity of these optimum PMs to speed and load is analyzed.

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