Gestalt principles have previously served as qualitative guidelines for good visual design in art, architecture, and product design. This paper introduces a formal method to quantify classical Gestalt principles (proximity, continuity, closure, symmetry, parallelism, and similarity) for two-dimensional product representations. With the approach, designers use their judgment to divide a 2D representation of a new concept or existing design into its key atomistic elements, identify the most appropriate Gestalt principles that apply to the grouping of those elements, and then can objectively quantify the design’s adherence to those principles using mathematical functions of the design parameters. This quantification provides a tool to augment a design team’s own subjective interpretations in evaluating and communicating a product’s visual appearance at any stage of or throughout the design process.

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