Seat style designers transform their ideas into 3-D forms using creative, iterative modeling processes to quickly evolve their designs from concept to reality, while refining the design details of the seat shape. Although the recent introduction of computer-aided styling systems to the design process has greatly enhanced designers' productivity, they still prefer to ideate using “pen and paper.” Here, we propose a sketch-based 3-D modeling system that enables designers to rapidly and intuitively create a seat shape by applying a 2-D sketch to a normalized seat reference model and then evaluating the newly designed model. For this purpose, we describe three modeling techniques that support interactive shape editing: curve manipulation using pen strokes, vertex point manipulation, and tangent vector manipulation. In addition, we propose three methods for the design and functional evaluation of an automotive seat, checking for interference between a seat skin and its frame, checking for foldability among seat components with regard to their positioning, and checking for coupling between a seat model and a digital human body.

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