Lead-user methods were applied to develop product design principles that encourage resource-conscious behavior in individuals. Old Order Mennonites (OOMs) were chosen as lead users because of their low-resource consumption lifestyles. Ethnographic analysis revealed that discretizing resource consumption facilitates and encourages conservation behaviors in OOMs. An experimental study demonstrated the effectiveness of discretization in reducing water consumption by non-OOMs. We then generated concepts for products that applied discretization and tested them with users. Concepts were revised and a prototype for saving water was created.

References

References
1.
Aleklett
,
K.
,
Hook
,
M.
,
Jakobsson
,
K.
,
Lardelli
,
M.
,
Snowden
,
S.
, and
Soderbergh
,
B.
,
2010
, “
The Peak of the Oil Age-Analyzing the World Oil Production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 2008
,”
Energy Policy
,
38
(
3
), pp.
1398
1414
.10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.021
2.
Dobbs
,
R.
,
Oppenheim
,
J.
, and
Thompson
,
F.
,
2012
, “
Mobilizing for a Resource Revolution
,”
McKinsey Quarterly
, pp.
1
15
.
3.
Sorrell
,
S.
,
Dimitropoulos
,
J.
, and
Sommerville
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Empirical Estimates of the Direct Rebound Effect: A Review
,”
Energy Policy
,
37
, pp.
1356
1371
.10.1016/j.enpol.2008.11.026
4.
Su
,
Q.
,
2012
, “
A Quantile Regression Analysis of the Rebound Effect: Evidence From the 2009 National Household Transportation Survey in the United States
,”
Energy Policy
,
45
, pp.
368
377
.10.1016/j.enpol.2012.02.045
5.
Gonzalez
,
J. F.
,
2010
, “
Empirical Evidence of Direct Rebound Effect in Catalonia
,”
Energy Policy
,
38
, pp.
2309
2314
10.1016/j.enpol.2009.12.018
6.
Matos
,
F. J. F.
, and
Silva
,
F. J. F.
,
2011
, “
The Rebound Effect on Road Freight Transport: Empirical Evidence From Portugal
,”
Energy Policy
,
39
, pp.
2833
2841
.10.1016/j.enpol.2011.02.056
7.
Stern
,
P.
,
2000
, “
Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behavior
,”
J. Soc. Issues
,
56
(
3
), pp.
407
424
.10.1111/0022-4537.00175
8.
Abrahamse
,
W.
,
Steg
,
L.
,
Vlek
,
C.
, and
Rothengatter
,
J. A.
,
2005
, “
A Review of Intervention Studies Aimed at Household Energy Conservation
,”
J. Environ. Psychol.
,
25
(
3
), pp.
273
291
.10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.002
9.
Barr
,
S.
,
Gilg
,
G.
, and
Shaw
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Helping People Make Better Choices: Exploring the Behavior Change Agenda for Environmental Sustainability
,”
Appl. Geogr.
,
31
, pp.
712
720
.10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.12.003
10.
Breukers
,
S. C.
,
Heiskanen
,
E.
,
Brohmann
,
B.
,
Mourik
,
R. M.
, and
Feenstra
,
C. F. J.
,
2011
, “
Connecting Research to Practice to Improve Energy Demand Side Management (DSM)
,”
Energy
,
36
, pp.
2176
2185
.10.1016/j.energy.2010.06.027
11.
Darnton
,
A.
,
2008
,
Reference Report: An Overview of Behavior Change Models and Their Uses, GSR Behavior Change Knowledge Review
,
Government Social Research Service
,
UK
.
12.
Hargreaves
,
T.
,
2011
, “
Practicing Behavior Change: Applying Social Practice Theory to Pro-Environmental Behavior Change
,”
J. Consum. Cult.
,
11
(
1
), pp.
79
99
.10.1177/1469540510390500
13.
Wever
,
R.
,
van Kuijk
,
J.
, and
Boks
,
C.
,
2008
, “
User-Centred Design for Sustainable Behavior
,”
Int. J. Sustainable Engineering
,
1
(
1
), pp.
9
20
.10.1080/19397030802166205
14.
Lilley
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Design for Sustainable Behavior: Strategies and Perceptions
,”
Des. Stud.
,
30
, pp.
704
720
.10.1016/j.destud.2009.05.001
15.
von Hippel
,
E.
,
1986
, “
Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts
,”
Manage. Sci.
,
32
(
7
), pp.
791
805
.10.1287/mnsc.32.7.791
16.
Hannukainen
,
P.
, and
Hölttä-Otto
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Identifying Customer Needs—Disabled Persons as Lead Users
,”
Proceedings of ASME IDETC
,
Philadelphia, PA
,
Sept. 10–13
, Paper No. DETC2006-99043.
17.
Lin
,
J.
, and
Seepersad
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Empathic Lead Users: The Effects of Extraordinary User Experiences on Customer Needs Analysis and Product Redesign
,”
Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conference
,
Las Vegas, NV
,
Sept. 4–7
, Paper No. DETC2007-35302.
18.
Agarwala
,
R.
,
Schaffer
,
A.
, and
Tomlin
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Towards a Complete North American Anabaptist Genealogy II: Analysis of Inbreeding
,”
Hum. Biol.
,
73
(
4
), pp.
533
545
.10.1353/hub.2001.0045
19.
Peters
,
J.
,
1987
, “
Socialization Among the Old Order Mennonites
,”
Int. J. Comp. Sociol.
,
28
, pp.
3
4
.10.1177/002071528702800307
20.
Gingrich
,
D.
,
2002
,
The Plain and Simple Facts: Inside the Old Order Mennonite Community of the St. Jacobs Area
,
Visitor Centre
,
St. Jacobs, ON
.
21.
Johnson
,
W. A.
,
Stoltzfus
,
V.
, and
Craumer
,
P.
,
1977
, “
Energy Conservation in Amish Agriculture
,”
Science
,
198
, pp.
373
378
10.1126/science.198.4315.373
22.
Craumer
,
P. R.
,
1979
, “
Farm Productivity and Energy Efficiency in Amish and Modern Dairying
,”
Agric. Environ.
,
4
, pp.
281
299
.10.1016/0304-1131(79)90004-3
23.
Bernard
,
H. R.
,
2006
,
Research Methods in Anthropology
,
Altamira Press
,
Toronto, ON, Canada
.
24.
Berkholz
,
P.
,
Kobersky
,
V.
, and
Stamminger
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Comparative Analysis of Global Consumer Behavior in the Context of Different Manual Dishwashing Methods
,”
Int. J. Consum. Stud.
,
37
(1), pp.
46
58
.10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01051.x
25.
Rutherford
,
A.
,
2001
,
Introducing anova and ancova
,
SAGE Publications Ltd
,
London, UK
.
26.
Steg
,
L.
, and
Vlek
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Encouraging Pro-Environmental Behavior: An Integrative Review and Research Agenda
,”
J. Environ. Psychol.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
309
317
.10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.10.004
27.
Lilley
,
D.
,
Lofthouse
V.
, and
Bhamra
,
T.
,
2005
, “
Towards Instinctive Sustainable Product Use
,” Paper Presented at the
Second International Conference in Sustainability, Creating the Culture
,
Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
,
Nov. 2–4
.
28.
Lilley
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Design for Sustainable Behavior: Strategies and Perceptions
,”
Des. Stud.
,
30
(
6
), pp.
704
720
.10.1016/j.destud.2009.05.001
29.
McCalley
,
L. T.
, and
Midden
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Energy Conservation Through Product-Integrated Feedback: The Roles of Goal Setting and Social Orientation
,”
J. Econ. Psychol.
,
23
(
5
), pp.
589
603
.10.1016/S0167-4870(02)00119-8
30.
Wansink
,
B.
,
Painter
,
J. E.
, and
North
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Bottomless Bowls: Why Visual Cues of Portion Size May Influence Intake
,”
Obes. Res.
,
13
(
1
), pp.
93
100
.10.1038/oby.2005.12
31.
Jelsma
,
J.
, and
Knot
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Designing Environmentally Efficient Services: A ‘Script’ Approach
,”
J. Sustainable Prod. Des.
,
2
, pp.
119
130
10.1023/B:JSPD.0000031031.20974.1b
32.
Fogg
,
B. J.
,
2009
, “
The Behaviour Grid: 35 Ways Behavior Can Change
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Persuasive Technology
,
Claremont, CA
,
April 26–29
.
33.
Lockton
,
D.
,
Harrison
,
D.
, and
Stanton
,
N.
,
2010
, “
The Design With Intent Method: A Design Tool for Influencing User Behavior
,”
Appl. Ergon.
,
41
, pp.
382
392
.10.1016/j.apergo.2009.09.001
34.
Lockton
,
D.
,
Harrison
,
D.
, and
Stanton
,
N.
,
2010
, “
Design With Intent: 101 Patterns for Influencing Behaviour Through Design
,” Retrieved Feb. 15, 2011, www.danlockton.com/dwi/Main_Page
35.
Völink
,
T.
, and
Meertens
,
R. M.
,
2006
, “
Technological Innovations and the Promotion of Energy Conservation: The Case of Goal-Setting and Feedback
,”
User Behavior and Technology Development: Shaping Sustainable Relations Between Consumers and Technologies
,
P.
Verbeek
and
A.
Slob
, eds.,
Springer
,
Dordrecht
, pp.
139
148
.
36.
Lockton
,
D.
,
Harrison
,
D.
,
Holley
,
T.
, and
Stanton
,
N.
,
2009
, “
Influencing Interaction: Development of the Design With Intent Method
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Persuasive Technology
,
Claremont, CA
,
April 26–29
.
37.
Lockton
,
D.
,
Harrison
,
D.
, and
Stanton
,
N.
,
2009
, “
Design for Sustainable Behaviour: Investigating Design Methods for Influencing User Behavior
,”
Proceedings Towards Sustainable Product Design Conference
,
Farnham Castle, UK
,
Oct. 26–27
.
38.
Bhamra
,
T. A.
, and
Lofthouse
,
V. A.
,
2003
, “
Information/Inspiration: A Web Based Sustainable Design Tool
,”
Proceedings of ICED
,
Stockholm, Sweden
,
Aug. 19–21
.
39.
Altshuller
,
G.
,
1994
,
And Suddenly The Inventor Appeared
,
Technical Innovation Center, Inc.
,
Worcester, MA
.
40.
Ramani
,
K.
,
Ramanujan
,
D.
,
Bernstein
,
W.
,
Zhao
,
F.
,
Sutherland
,
J.
,
Handwerker
,
C.
,
Choi
,
J.
,
Kim
,
H.
, and
Thurston
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Integrated Sustainable Life Cycle Design: A Review
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
132
(
9
), p.
091004
.10.1115/1.4002308
41.
Environment Canada
,
2011
, “
Wise Water Use
.”
42.
EIA U.S. Energy Information Administration
,
2010
, “
Independent Statistics and Analysis Report 2009
.”
You do not currently have access to this content.