Synchronous belt drives generate resonance on the belt spans between the driving and driven pulleys when the transverse natural frequency of the belt, matches the meshing frequency of the belt tooth and the pulley tooth. The resonance of the belt spans affects the accuracy of rotation transmission. In the present study, the mechanisms generating the transmission error in synchronous belt drives under installation tension and a pulley speed ratio of 1:1 are investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case in which the belt spans generate first mode vibration due to resonance. In addition, the change in the shaft load caused by resonance is examined. The calculated and experimental transmission errors show good agreement, and so the validity of our analysis is confirmed. Transmission error is generated by the difference in displacement between the upper and lower belt spans due to the convex or concave shape, the difference in the amount of belt climbing at the beginning and end of meshing, and the generation of torque due to the moment of inertia on the driven side. The transmission error has a period of 1/2 of one pitch of the pulley, and the generated change in the shaft load, which is the sum of the displacement due to the convex or concave shape of the upper and lower spans and the sum of the belt climbing at the beginning and end of meshing, has a period of one pitch of the pulley.

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