This paper presents the development of a mechanism for actuating a sphere holonomically about 3 degrees of freedom (DOF). The target application is a robot head for mounting inside a vehicle to provide a driver with companionship, location specific information, and other assistance, via head motions in conjunction with auditory communication. Prior art is reviewed and two designs are presented: One mechanism is located below the sphere and provides an unlimited range of motion (ROM), and the other is contained entirely within the sphere but has a limited range of motion. The latter is stable and easily mounted, provides a clean appearance, and is particularly suited to human interaction applications.

References

References
1.
Nissan Motor Company
, 2009, “
Robotic Interface
,” http://www.nissan-global.com/en/technology/introduction/details/ri
2.
Nissan Motor Company
, 2009, “
NISSAN Concept Car PIVO 2
,” http://www.nissan-global.com/en/pivo2/index.html
3.
Broekens
,
J.
,
Heerink
,
M.
, and
Rosendal
,
H.
, 2009, “
Assistive Social Robots in Elderly Care: A Review
,”
Gerontechnology
,
8
(
2
), pp.
94
103
.
4.
Honda Motor Co.
, 2009, “
Asmio the Honda Humanoid Robot
,” http://world.honda.com/asimo/
5.
Breazeal
,
C. L.
, 2000, “
Sociable Machines: Expressive Social Exchange Between Humans and Robots
,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
6.
Berns
,
K.
, and
Hirth
,
J.
, 2006, “
Control of Facial Expressions of the Humanoid Robot Head ROMAN
,”
2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, October 9-15, Beijing, China, pp.
3119
3124
.
7.
Hanson Robotics, Inc., 2011, http://hansonrobokind.com/
8.
Kozima
,
H.
,
Michalowski
,
M. P.
, and
Nakagawa
,
C.
, 2009, “
Keepon: A Playful Robot for Research, Therapy, and Entertainment
,”
Int. J. Soc. Rob.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
3
18
.
9.
Michalowski
,
M. P.
, 2008, “
Keepon Dancing
,”
Ambidexterous
,
Spring
(
9
), pp.
13
15
.
10.
Tilley
,
A. R.
, 1993,
The Measure of Man and Woman: Human Factors in Design
,
The Whitney Library of Design
,
New York, NY
, pp.
16
17
.
11.
Robinson
,
A. H.
, 1997, “
The President’s Globe
,”
Imago Mundi
,
49
, pp.
143
152
.
12.
West
,
M.
, 1995, “
Design of Omnidirectional Wheels Vehicles With Ball Wheels
,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
13.
Grabowiecki
,
J.
, 1919, “
Vehicle-Wheel
,” U.S. Patent No. 1,305,535.
14.
Ilon
,
B. E.
, 1973, “
Directionally Stable Self Propelled Vehicle
,” U.S. Patent No. 3,746,112.
15.
Ilon
,
B. E.
, 1975, “
Wheels for a Coarse Stable Selfpropelling Vehicle Moveable in Any Desired Direction on the Ground or Some Other Base
,” U.S. Patent No. 3,876,255.
16.
La
,
H. T.
, 1980, “
Omnidirectional Vehicle
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,237,990.
17.
Bradbury
,
H. M.
, 1980, “
Omni-Directional Transport Device
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,223,753.
18.
Flynt
,
F. V.
, 1950, “
Semicircular Type Support and Drive for Receiver Parbola Stabalizaton
,” U.S. Patent No. 2,512,636.
19.
Speicher
,
J. M.
, 1981, “
Differential Drive Rolling Arc Gimbal
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,282,529.
20.
Speicher
,
J. M.
, 1983, “
Differential Drive Pedestal Gimbal
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,396,919.
You do not currently have access to this content.