This paper studies the dynamic electromechanical response of piezoelectric mirrors driven by piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films both numerically and experimentally. The resonant frequency and the mirror tilt angle of piezoelectric mirrors under ac electric fields were analyzed by three-dimensional finite element method. The dynamic electromechanical field concentrations due to electrodes were also simulated and the results were discussed in detail. The mirrors consisted of four partially poled PZT unimorphs. The resonant frequency was then measured, and a comparison was made between the analysis and the experiment. The finite element method is shown to be capable of estimating the electromechanical field concentrations in the PZT films, making it a useful tool for designing future microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirrors.

References

References
1.
Alzaydi
,
A. A.
,
Yeow
,
J. T. W.
, and
Lee
,
S. L.
, 2008, “
Hydraulic Controlled Polyester-Based Micro Adaptive Mirror With Adjustable Focal Length
,”
Mechatronics
,
18
(
2
), pp.
61
70
.
2.
Mahmoodi
,
S. N.
,
Jalili
,
N.
, and
Ahmadian
,
M.
, 2010, “
Subharmonics Analysis of Nonlinear Flexural Vibrations of Piezoelectrically Actuated Microcantilevers
,”
Nonlinear Dyn.
,
59
, pp.
397
409
.
3.
Shindo
,
Y.
,
Yoshida
,
M.
,
Narita
,
F.
, and
Horiguchi
,
K.
, 2004, “
Electroelastic Field Concentrations Ahead of Electrodes in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators: Experiment and Finite Element Simulation
,”
J. Mech. Phys. Solids
,
52
(
5
), pp.
1109
1124
.
4.
Narita
,
F.
,
Shindo
,
Y.
, and
Mikami
,
M.
, 2007, “
Electroelastic Field Concentrations and Polarization Switching Induced by Circular Electrode at the Interface of Piezoelectric Disk Composites
,”
Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids
,
26
(
3
), pp.
394
404
.
5.
Park
,
J.-H.
,
Akedo
,
J.
, and
Sato
,
H.
, 2007, “
High-Speed Metal-Based Optical Microscanners Using Stainless-Steel Substrate and Piezoelectric Thick Films Prepared by Aerosol Deposition Method
,”
Sens. Actuators A
,
135
(
1
), pp.
86
91
.
6.
Narita
,
F.
,
Shindo
,
Y.
, and
Sato
,
K.
, 2011, “
Evaluation of Electromechanical Properties and Field Concentrations Near Electrodes in Piezoelectric Thick Films for MEMS Mirrors by Simulations and Tests
,”
Comput. Struct.
,
89
(
11/12
), pp.
1077
1085
.
7.
Li
,
Q.
,
Lovell
,
M.
,
Mei
,
J.
, and
Clark
,
W.
, 2004, “
A Study of Displacement Distribution in a Piezoelectric Heterogeneous Bimorph
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
126
, pp.
757
762
.
8.
Deshpande
,
M.
, and
Saggere
,
L.
, 2005, “
Modeling and Design of an Optically Powered Microactuator for a Microfluidic Dispenser
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
127
, pp.
825
836
.
9.
Kudikala
,
R.
,
Kalyanmoy
,
D.
, and
Bhattacharya
,
B.
, 2009, “
Multi-Objective Optimization of Piezoelectric Actuator Placement for Shape Control of Plates Using Genetic Algorithms
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
,
091007
.
10.
Schroth
,
A.
,
Lee
,
C.
,
Matsumoto
,
S.
, and
Maeda
,
R.
, 1999, “
Application of Sol-Gel Deposited Thin PZT Film for Actuation of 1D and 2D Scanners
,”
Sens. Actuators A
,
73
(
1–2
), pp.
144
152
.
11.
Dent
,
A. C.
,
Bowen
,
C. R.
,
Stevens
,
R.
,
Cain
,
M. G.
, and
Stewart
,
M.
, 2007, “
Effective Elastic Properties for Unpoled Barium Titanate
,”
J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
,
27
(
13/15
), pp.
3739
3743
.
12.
Swain
,
C. G.
, and
Swain
,
M.
, 1980, “
A Uniform Random Number Generator That is Reproducible, Hardware-Independent, and Fast
,”
J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci.
,
20
, pp.
56
58
.
13.
Shindo
,
Y.
,
Narita
,
F.
, and
Hirama
,
M.
, 2009, “
Electromechanical Field Concentrations Near the Electrode Tip in Partially Poled Multilayer Piezo-Film Actuators
,”
Smart Mater. Struct.
,
18
, p.
085020
.
14.
Narita
,
F.
,
Shindo
,
Y.
, and
Mikami
,
M.
, 2005, “
Analytical and Experimental Study of Nonlinear Bending Response and Domain Wall Motion in Piezoelectric Laminated Actuators Under ac Electric Fields
,”
Acta Mater.
,
53
(
17
), pp.
4523
4529
.
15.
Otani
,
T.
, 2008, “
Brother Industries Develops Head-Mountable Retinal Scanning Display
,”
Nikkei Electronics
, http: //techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS EN/20080411/150360/
You do not currently have access to this content.