The quest for improved fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness is transforming automotive vehicle design. In addition to new energy sources and management, new powertrain technologies offer increased flexibility in the spatial arrangement (packaging) and exterior shape (styling) of a vehicle. Design choices in packaging and styling are closely linked to consumer preferences, particularly those that influence consumers’ decisions about the objective qualities of a product (i.e., perceptual attributes). The ability to include perceptual attributes into a design optimization study is a valuable extension of the more traditional engineering approach that looks at only functional attributes. Previous work has studied the quantification of perceived environmental friendliness (PEF) in vehicle silhouette design. In this paper, empirically validated PEF silhouette attributes are included as constraints in a vehicle optimization model that maximizes fuel economy. Results indicate that there is a tradeoff between PEF preferences and the attainable fuel economy for a given vehicle, where increasing vehicle length leads to increasing PEF and decreasing fuel economy.

References

References
1.
Reid
,
T. N.
,
Gonzalez
,
R. D.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
, 2010, “
Quantification of Perceived Environmental Friendliness for Vehicle Silhouette Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
132
(
10
), p.
101010
.
2.
Creusen
,
M. E.
, and
Schoormans
,
J. P.
, 2005, “
The Different Roles of Product Appearance in Consumer Choice
,”
J. Product Innovation Manage.
,
22
, pp.
63
81
.
3.
Wertenbroch
,
K.
, and
Dhar
,
R.
, 2000, “
Consumer Choice Between Hedonic and Utilitarian Goods
,”
J. Marketing Res.
,
37
(
1
), pp.
60
71
.
4.
Griskevicius
,
V.
,
Tybur
,
J. M.
, and
Van den Bergh
,
B.
, 2008, “
Going Green to Be Seen: Status, Reputation, and Conspicuous Conservation
,”
J. Personality Social Psychol.
,
98
(
3
), pp.
392
404
.
5.
Maynard
,
M.
, 2007, “Say ‘Hybrid’ and Many People Will Hear ‘Prius’,” The New York Times, July 4.
6.
Landwehr
,
J. R.
,
Labroo
,
A. A.
, and
Herrmann
,
A.
, 2011, “
Gut Liking for the Ordinary: Incorporating Design Fluency Improves Automobile Sales Forecasts
,”
Marketing Sci.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
416
429
.
7.
Orsborn
,
S.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2009, “
Multiagent Shape Grammar Implementation: Automatically Generating Form Concepts According to a Preference Function
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
131
(
12
), p.
121007
.
8.
Wassenaar
,
H. J.
,
Chen
,
W.
,
Cheng
,
J.
, and
Sudjianto
,
A.
, 2005, “
Enhancing Discrete Choice Demand Modeling for Decision-Based Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
127
(
4
), pp.
514
523
.
9.
Wassenaar
,
H. J.
, and
Chen
,
W.
, 2003, “
An Approach to Decision-Based Design With Discrete Choice Analysis for Demand Modeling
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
125
(
3
), pp.
490
497
.
10.
Burns
,
L.
, 2005, “Larry Burns on the Future of Cars,” viewed on http://wwwd.comhttp://wwwd.com.
11.
Lewin
,
T.
, 2003,
How to Design Cars Like a Pro
,
Motorbooks
,
Osceola, WI
.
12.
Thurston
,
D.
, 1991, “
A Formal Method for Subjective Design Evaluation With Multiple Attributes
,”
Res. Eng. Design
,
3
, pp.
105
122
.
13.
Kelly
,
J.
, and
Papalambros
,
P.
, 2007, “
Use of Shape Preference Information in Product Design
,”
in International Conference on Engineering Design
, ICED’07, ICED’07/867, ICED.
14.
Ahn
,
K.
,
Cho
,
S.
, and
Cha
,
S. W.
, 2008, “
Optimal Operation of the Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D
,
222
(
5
), pp.
789
800
.
15.
Frischknecht
,
B.
, and
Papalambros
,
P.
, 2008, “
A Pareto Approach to Aligning Public and Private Objectives in Vehicle Design
,”
In Proceedings of the ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, DETC2008-49143.
16.
Whitefoot
,
J. W.
,
Ahn
,
K.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
, 2010, “
The Case for Urban Vehicles: Powertrain Optimization of a Power-Split Hybrid for Fuel Economy on Multiple Drive Cycles
,”
In Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design and Engineering Technical Conference & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, August 15–18, Montreal, Quebec, DETC2010-28457
, pp.
197
204
.
17.
Shiau
,
C. N.
,
Kaushal
,
N.
,
Hendrickson
,
C. T.
,
Peterson
,
S. B.
,
Whitacre
,
J. F.
, and
Michalek
,
J. J.
, 2010, “
Optimal Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design and Allocation for Minimum Life Cycle Cost, Petroleum Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
132
(
9
), p.
091013
.
18.
Georgiopoulos
,
P.
, 2003, “
Enterprise-Wide Product Design: Linking Optimal Design Decisions to the Theory of the Firm
,” Ph.D. thesis, Program in Manufacturing, University of Michigan.
19.
Michalek
,
J. J.
,
Papalambros
,
P.
, and
Skerlos
,
S.
, 2004, “
A Study of Fuel Efficiency and Emission Policy Impact on Optimal Vehicle Design Decisions
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
126
(
6
), pp.
1062
1070
.
20.
Michalek
,
J.
, 2005, “
Preference Coordination in Engineering Design Decision-Making
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan.
21.
Frischknecht
,
B.
, 2009, “
Market Systems Modeling for Public Versus Private Tradeoff Analysis in Optimal Vehicle Design
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan.
22.
Papalambros
,
P.
, and
Wilde
,
D.
, 2000,
Principles of Optimal Design
,
2nd ed.
,
Cambridge University Press
,
New York
.
23.
Wards Communications
, 2006,
Ward’s Automotive Yearbook
,
Wards Communications
,
Detroit, Michigan
.
24.
SAE International
, 2005,
Automotive Engineering Handbook
,
SAE International
,
Warrendale, PA
.
27.
AVL, 2008, AVL CRUISE Basic Information, AVL LIST GMBH, http://www.avl.com, accessed 2/4/2008.
28.
Ngatchou
,
P.
,
Anahita
,
Z.
, and
El-Sharkawi
,
M.
, 2005, “
Pareto Multi Objective Optimization
,”
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems
, pp.
84
91
.
29.
Reid
,
T.
, 2010, “
Quantifying Perception-Based Attributes in Design: A Case Study on the Perceived Environmental Friendliness of Vehicle Silhouettes
,” Ph.D. thesis, Design Science Program, University of Michigan.
30.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Boatwright
,
P.
, 2009, “
Quantifying Aesthetic Form Preference in a Utility Function
,”
ASME J. Mech. Design
,
131
(
6
), p.
061001
.
31.
Arrow
,
K. J.
, 1963,
Social Choice and Individual Values
,
2nd ed.
,
Yale University Press
,
New Haven, CT
.
33.
Ewing
,
G.
, and
Sarigöllü
,
E.
, 2000, “
Assessing Consumer Preferences for Clean-Fuel Vehicles: A Discrete Choice Experiment
,”
J. Public Policy Marketing
,
19
(
1
), pp.
106
118
.
You do not currently have access to this content.