An important design decision for active trailer steering (ATS) systems for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) is the trade-off between maneuverability and lateral stability. This paper presents an automated design method for this trade-off. The proposed method has the following features: (1) a design framework for bilevel optimization of ATS systems is formulated; (2) design variables of ATS controllers and trailers are optimized simultaneously; (3) two controllers are designed for the ATS system for improving stability and enhancing maneuverability, respectively; and (4) a driver model is introduced in the virtual vehicle simulation for closed-loop testing maneuvers. The design framework allows automation of vehicle modeling, controller construction, performance evaluation, and design variable selection, and all required design processes are implemented in a single loop. The proposed method is compared to a previously published two-loop design method, showing that the new approach can effectively identify desired variables and predict performance envelopes.

References

References
1.
Odhams
,
A.
,
Roebuck
,
R.
,
Cebon
,
D.
, and
Winker
,
C.
, 2008, “
Dynamic Safety of Active Trailer Steering Systems
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K: J. Multi-body Dyn.
,
222
, pp.
367
380
.
2.
Rangavajhula
,
K.
, and
Tsao
,
H.-S.
, 2007, “
Active Steering Control of an Articulated System With a Tractor and Three Full Trailers for Tractor-Track Following
,”
Int. J. Heavy Veh. Syst.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
271
293
.
3.
Fancher
,
P.
, and
Winkler
,
D.
, 2007, “
Directional Performance Issues in Evaluation and Design of Articulated Heavy Vehicles
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
45
(
7–8
), pp.
607
647
.
4.
Jujnovich
,
B.
, and
Cebon
,
D.
, 2002, “
Comparative Performance of Semi-Trailer Steering Systems
,”
Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions
,
Delft
, pp.
195
214
.
5.
El-Gindy
,
M.
,
Mrad
,
N.
, and
Tong
,
X.
, 2001, “
Sensitivity of Rearward Amplification Control of a Tractor/Full Trailer to Tyre Cornering Stiffness Variations
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.)
,
215
, pp.
579
588
.
6.
Prem
,
H.
,
Ramsay
,
E.
,
Pont
,
J.
,
McLean
,
J.
, and
Woodrooffe
,
J.
, 2001, “
Comparison of Modelling Systems for Performance-Based Assessments of Heavy Vehicles
,” Performance Based Standards – National Road Transport Commission (Australia)/Austroads project A3 and A4, Working Paper, ISBN: 0 642 54489 1.
7.
Aurell
,
J.
, and
Edlund
,
S.
, 1989, “
The Influence of Steered Axles on the Dynamic Stability of Heavy Vehicles
,” SAE paper No. 892498, pp.
612
629
.
8.
Winkler
,
C.
,
Fancher
,
P.
,
Carsten
,
O.
,
Mathew
,
A.
, and
Dill
,
P.
, 1986, “
Improving the Dynamic Performance of Multitrailer Vehicles: A Study of Innovative Dollies
,” Transportation Research Institute, The University of Michigan, Vol.
I
, Final Technical Report, p.
235
.
9.
Wu
,
D.-H.
, and
Lin
,
J.
, 2003, “
Analysis of Dynamic Lateral Response for a Multi-Axle-Steering Tractor and Trailer
,”
Int. J. Heavy Veh. Syst.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
281
294
.
10.
Cheng
,
C.
, and
Cebon
,
D.
, 2008, “
Improving Roll Stability of Articulated Heavy Vehicles Using Active Semi-Trailer Steering
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
46
, pp.
373
388
.
11.
Rangavajhula
,
K.
, and
Tsao
,
H.-S.
, 2008, “
Command Steering of Trailers and Command-Steering-Based Optimal Control of an Articulated System for Tractor-Track Following
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.)
,
222
, pp.
935
954
.
12.
He
,
Y.
, and
McPhee
,
J.
, 2005, “
A Design Methodology for Mechatronic Vehicles: Application of Multidisciplinary Optimization, Multibody Dynamics and Genetic Algorithms
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
43
(
10
), pp.
697
733
.
13.
He
,
Y.
,
Islam
,
M.
, and
Webster
,
T. D.
, 2010, “
An Integrated Design Method for Articulated Heavy Vehicles With Active Trailer Steering Systems
,”
SAE Int. J. Passenger Cars—Mech. Syst.
,
119
(
6
), pp.
158
174
.
14.
Fathy
,
H. K.
,
Reyer
,
J. A.
,
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
, and
Ulsoy
,
A. G.
, 2001, “
On the Coupling Between the Plant and Controller Optimization Problems
,”
Proceedings of the American Control Conference
, Arlington, VA, pp.
1864
1869
.
15.
Reyer
,
J. A.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
, 2002, “
Combined Optimal Design and Control With Application to an Electric DC Motor
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
124
(
2
), pp.
183
191
.
16.
Islam
,
M.
,
He
,
Y.
, and
Webster
,
T.
, 2010, “
Automated Design Synthesis of Articulated Heavy Vehicles With Active Trailer Steering Systems
,”
Proceedings of ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28160.
17.
Henderson
,
R. L.
, 1987, “
Overview of the Driver Performance Data Book
,”
SAE Automotive Crash Avoidance Research
, SP-699, SAE Paper No. 870346, pp.
121
132
.
18.
Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994, A Test for Evaluating the Rearward Amplification of Multi-Articulated Vehicles, SAE Recommended Practice J2179, Warrendale.
19.
Fancher
,
P.
,
Winkler
,
C.
,
Ervin
,
R.
, and
Zhang
H.
, 1998, “
Using Braking to Control the Lateral Motions of Full Trailers
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
28
, pp.
462
478
.
20.
Plö
chl
,
M.
, and Edelmann, 2007, “
Driver Models in Automobile Dynamics Application
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
45
, pp.
699
741
.
21.
Sharp
,
R. S.
, 2005, “
Driver Steering Control and a New Perspective on Car Handling Qualities
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci.
,
219
, pp.
1041
1051
.
22.
Menhour
,
L.
,
Lechner
,
D.
, and
Charara
,
A.
, 2010, “
Two Degrees of Freedom PID Multi-Controllers to Design a Mathematical Driver Model: Experimental Validation and Robustness Tests
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
48
, pp.
1
30
.
23.
Winkler
,
C.
, 2000, “
Rollover of Heavy Commercial Vehicles
,”
UMTRI Res. Rev.
,
31
, pp.
1
17
.
24.
Bryson
,
A.
, and
Ho
,
Y.
, 1975,
Applied Optimal Control, Optimization, Estimation and Control
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
25.
Oberoi
,
D.
,
Islam
M.
, and
He
,
Y.
, 2011, “
Design Optimization of Articulated Heavy Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithms and Multibody Vehicle Models
,”
Proceedings of 23rd Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics
,
Vancouver, BC
,
Canada
.
26.
Goldberg
,
D.
, 1989,
Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning
,
Addison-Wesley
,
Reading, MA
.
27.
Ma
,
W.
, and
Peng
,
H.
, 1999, “
Worst-Case Vehicle Evaluation Methodology—Examples on Truck Rollover/Jackknifing and Active Yaw Control Systems
,”
Veh. Syst. Dyn.
,
32
, pp.
389
408
.
You do not currently have access to this content.