A number of cognitive skills relevant to conceptual design were identified previously. They include divergent thinking (DT), visual thinking (VT), spatial reasoning (SR), qualitative reasoning (QR), and problem formulation (PF). A battery of standardized tests is being developed for these design skills. This paper focuses only on the divergent thinking test. This particular test has been given to over 500 engineering students and a smaller number of practicing engineers. It is designed to evaluate four direct measures (fluency, flexibility, originality, and quality) and four indirect measures (abstractability, afixability, detailability, and decomplexability). The eight questions on the test overlap in some measures and the responses can be used to evaluate several measures independently (e.g., fluency and originality can be evaluated separately from the same idea set). The data on the twenty-three measured variables were factor analyzed using both exploratory and confirmatory procedures. A four-factor solution with correlated (oblique) factors was deemed the best available solution after examining solutions with more factors. The indirect measures did not appear to correlate strongly either among themselves or with the other direct measures. The four-factor structure was then taken into a confirmatory factor analytic procedure that adjusted for the missing data. It was found to provide a reasonable fit. Estimated correlations among the four factors (F) ranged from a high of 0.32 for F1 and F2 to a low of 0.06 for F3 and F4. All factor loadings were statistically significant.

References

References
1.
Shah
,
J.
, 2005, “
Identification, Measurement and Development of Design Skills in Engineering Education
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED05)
, Melbourne, Australia.
2.
Shah
,
J.
,
Smith
,
S. M.
, and
Woodward
,
J.
, 2009, “
Development of Standardized Tests for Design Skills
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED09)
, Stanford, CA.
3.
Dorst
,
K.
, and
Cross
,
N.
, 2001, “
Creativity in Design Process: Co-Evolution of Problem–Solution
,”
Des. Stud.
,
22
, pp.
425
437
.
4.
Maher
,
M.
, 1996, “
Modeling Design Exploration As Co-Evolution
,”
Microcomput. Civ. Eng.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
195
209
.
5.
Torrance
,
E.
, 1964,
Role of Evaluation in Creative Thinking
,
Bureau of Educational Research, University of Minnesota
,
Minneapolis
.
6.
Finke
,
R. A.
,
Ward
,
T. B.
, and
Smith
,
S. M.
, 1992,
Creative Cognition: Theory, Research, and Applications
,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
7.
Campbell
,
D. T.
, 1960, “
Blind Variation and Selective Retention in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes
,”
Psychol. Rev.
,
67
, pp.
380
400
.
8.
Simonton
,
D. K.
, 1999,
Origins of Genius: Darwinian Perspectives on Creativity
,
Oxford University Press
,
New York
.
9.
Simonton
,
D. K.
, 2007, “
Picasso’s Guernica Creativity as a Darwinian Process: Definitions, Clarifications, Misconceptions, and Applications
,”
Creativity Res. J.
,
19
(
4
), pp.
381
394
.
10.
Guildford
,
J.
, 1967,
The Nature of Human Intelligence
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
11.
Dunbar
,
K.
, 1995, “
How Scientists Really Reason: Scientific Reasoning in Real-World Laboratories
,”
The Nature of Insight
,
R. J.
Sternberg
and
J. E.
Davidson
, eds.,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge, MA
, pp.
365
395
.
12.
Dunbar
,
K.
, 1997, “
How Scientists Think: On-Line Creativity and Conceptual Change in Science
,”
Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes
,
T. B.
Ward
,
S. M.
Smith
, and
J.
Vaid
, eds.,
American Psychological Association
,
Washington, DC
, pp.
461
493
.
13.
Mednick
,
S. A.
, 1962, “
The Associative Basis of the Creative Process
,”
Psychol. Rev.
,
69
, pp.
220
232
.
14.
Ward
,
T. B.
, 1998, “
Analogical Distance and Purpose in Creative Thought: Mental Leaps Versus Mental Hops
,”
Advances in Analogy Research: Integration of Theory and Data From the Cognitive, Computational, and Neural Sciences
,
K.
Holyoak
,
D.
Gentner
, and
B.
Kokinov
, eds.,
New Bulgarian University
,
Sofia
.
15.
Wharton
,
C. M.
,
Holyoak
,
K. J.
, and
Lange
,
T. E.
, 1996, “
Remote Analogical Reminding
,”
Mem. Cognit.
,
24
, pp.
629
643
.
16.
Metcalfe
,
J.
, 1986, “
Premonitions of Insight Predict Impending Error
,”
J. Exp. Psychol. Learn., Mem. Cogn.
,
12
, pp.
623
634
.
17.
Metcalfe
,
J.
, and
Weibe
,
D.
, 1987, “
Intuition in Insight and Non-Insight Problem Solving
,”
Mem. Cognit.
,
15
, pp.
238
246
.
18.
Smith
,
S. M.
, 1994, “
Getting Into and Out of Mental Ruts: A Theory of Fixation, Incubation, and Insight
,”
The Nature of Insight
,
R.
Sternberg
, and
J.
Davidson
, eds.,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge, MA
, pp.
121
149
.
19.
Smith
,
S. M.
, 1995, “
Fixation, Incubation, and Insight in Memory, Problem Solving, and Creativity
,”
The Creative Cognition Approach
,
S. M.
Smith
,
T. B.
Ward
, and
R. A.
Finke
, eds.,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge
, pp.
135
155
.
20.
Baughman
,
W. A.
, and
Mumford
,
M. D.
, 1995, “
Process-Analytic Models of Creative Capacities: Operations Influencing the Combination-and-Reorganization Process
,”
Creativity Res. J.
,
8
, pp.
37
62
.
21.
Mumford
,
M. D.
,
Reiter-Palmon
,
R.
, and
Redmond
,
M. R.
, 1994, “
Problem Construction and Cognition: Applying Problem Representations in Ill-Defined Problems
,”
Problem Finding, Problem Solving, and Creativity
,
M. A.
Runco
, ed.,
Albex
,
Norwood, NJ
, pp.
3
39
.
22.
Ward
,
T. B.
, 1994, “
Structured Imagination: The Role of Category Structure in Exemplar Generation
,”
Cognit. Psychol.
,
27
, pp.
1
40
.
23.
Ward
,
T. B.
,
Dodds
,
R. A.
,
Saunders
,
K. N.
, and
Sifonis
,
C. M.
, 2000, “
Attribute Centrality and Imaginative Thought
,”
Mem. Cognit.
,
28
, pp.
1387
1397
.
24.
Ward
,
T. B.
,
Patterson
,
M. J.
,
Sifonis
,
C. M.
,
Dodds
,
R. A.
, and
Saunders
,
K. N.
, 2002, “
The Role of Graded Category Structure in Imaginative Thought
,”
Mem. Cognit.
,
30
, pp.
199
216
.
25.
Ward
,
T. B.
,
Patterson
,
M. J.
, and
Sifonis
,
C.
, 2004, “
The Role of Specificity and Abstraction in Creative Idea Generation
,”
Creativity Res. J.
,
16
, pp.
1
9
.
26.
Christensen
,
B. T.
, and
Schunn
,
C. D.
, 2007, “
The Relationship of Analogical Distance to Analogical Function and Preinventive Structure: The Case of Engineering Design
,”
Mem. Cognit.
,
35
, pp.
29
38
.
27.
Jansson
,
D. G.
, and
Smith
,
S. M.
, 1991, “
Design Fixation
,”
Des. Stud.
,
12
(
1
), pp.
3
11
.
28.
Chrysikou
,
E. G.
, and
Weisberg
,
R. W.
, 2005, “
Following the Wrong Footsteps: Fixation Effects of Pictorial Examples in a Design Problem-Solving Task
,”
J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn.
,
31
(
5
), pp.
1134
1148
.
29.
Dahl
,
D. W.
, and
Moreau
,
P.
, 2002, “
The Influence and Value of Analogical Thinking During New Product Ideation
,”
J. Mark. Res.
,
39
, pp.
47
60
.
30.
Linsey
,
J.
,
Tseng
,
I.
,
Fu
,
K.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Wood
,
K.
, 2009, “
Reducing and Perceiving Design Fixation
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design
, Stanford, CA.
31.
Purcell
,
A. T.
, and
Gero
,
J. S.
, 1996, “
Design and Other Types of Fixation
,”
Des. Stud.
,
17
(
4
), pp.
363
383
.
32.
Smith
,
S. M.
, and
Blankenship
,
S. E.
, 1989, “
Incubation Effects
,”
Bull. Psychon. Soc.
,
27
, pp.
311
314
.
33.
Shah
,
J. J.
,
Smith
,
S. M.
,
Vargas-Hernandez
,
N.
,
Gerkens
,
R.
, and
Wulan
,
M.
, 2003, “
Empirical Studies of Design Ideation: Alignment of Design Experiments With Lab Experiments
,”
Proceedings of the American Society for Mechanical Engineering (ASME) DTM Conference
, Chicago.
34.
Vargas-Hernandez
,
N.
,
Shah
,
J.
, and
Smith
,
S. M.
, 2007, “
Cognitive Models of Design Ideation
,”
Proceedings of the International Design Engineering Technical Conference/Computers and Information in Engineering
.
35.
Jansson
,
D. G.
,
Condoor
,
S. S.
, and
Brock
,
H. R.
, 1993, “
Cognition in Design: Viewing the Hidden Side of the Design Process
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
19
, pp.
257
271
.
36.
Condoor
,
S. S.
, and
Burger
,
C. P.
, 1998, “
Coupling and Its Impact on the Product Creation Process
,”
Management of Technology, Sustainable Development and Eco-Efficiency
,
L. A.
Lefebvre
,
R. M.
Mason
, and
T.
Khalil
, eds.,
Elsevier
,
Amsterdam
, pp.
197
206
.
37.
Gardner
,
H.
, 2006,
Multiple Intelligences
,
Basic Books
,
New York
.
38.
Shah
,
J. J.
,
Smith
,
S. M.
, and
Vargas-Hernandez
,
N.
, 2003, “
Metrics for Measuring Ideation Effectiveness
,”
Des. Stud.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
111
134
.
39.
Woodward
,
J.
, and
Shah
,
J.
, 2008, “
Analysis of Divergent Thinking Tests
,” Technical Report DAL2008-05, Design Automation Lab, Arizona State University.
40.
Goff
,
K.
, and
Torrance
,
E. P.
, 2002,
Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults
,
Scholastic Testing Services, Inc.
,
Bensenville, IL
.
41.
Meeker
,
M.
, and
Meeker
,
R.
, 1982,
Structure of Intellect Learning Abilities Test: Evaluation, Leadership, and Creative Thinking
,
SOI Institute
,
El Segundo, CA
(revised in 2000).
42.
Meeker SOI checklist, http://www.soisystems.com/
43.
Torrance
,
E. P.
, 1974,
Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking
,
Personnel Press
,
Lexington, MA
.
44.
Guilford
,
J. P.
, 1950, “
Creativity
,”
Am. Psychol.
,
5
, pp.
444
454
.
45.
Wallach
,
M. A.
, and
Kogan
,
N.
, 1965,
Modes of Thinking in Young Children: A Study of the Creativity–Intelligence Distinction
,
Holt Rinehart & Winston
,
New York
.
46.
Guilford
,
J. P.
,
Wilson
,
R. C.
, and
Christensen
,
E. C.
, 1952, “
A Factor-Analytic Study of Creative Thinking II. Administration of Tests and Analysis of Results
,” Report No. 8,
Psychological Laboratory, University of Southern California
, LA.
47.
Williams
,
F.
, 1980,
Creativity Assessment Packet: Examiner’s Manual
,
Pro-Ed Publishing
,
Austin, TX
.
48.
Kline
,
P.
, 1993,
The Handbook of Psychological Testing
,
Routledge
,
London
.
49.
Cronbach
,
L. J.
, 1990,
Essentials of Psychological Testing
,
5th ed.
,
Harper & Row
,
New York
.
50.
http://asudesign.eas.asu.edu/testsportal/index.php
51.
Rose
,
R. G.
, 1993,
Practical Issues in Employment Testing
,
Psych Assmntt, Inc.
,
Odessa, FL
.
52.
Pahl
,
G.
, and
Beitz
,
W.
, 1995,
Engineering Design
,
2nd ed.
,
Springer
,
London
.
53.
SPSS, Inc.
, 2008,
SPSS Statistics 17.0
,
SPSS, Inc.
,
Chicago, IL
.
54.
Muthén
,
L.
, and
Muthén
,
B.
, 1998–2006,
Mplus User’s Guide
,
4th ed.
,
Muthén & Muthén
,
Los Angeles, CA
.
55.
Little
,
R. J. A.
, and
Rubin
,
D. B.
, 1987,
Statistical Analysis With Missing Data
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.