The volumetric efficiency is one of the most important aspects of system performance in the design of axial piston pumps. From the standpoint of engineering practices, the geometric complexities of the valve plate (VP) and its multiple interactions with pump dynamics pose difficult obstacles for optimization of the design. This research uses the significant concept of pressure carryover to develop the mathematical relationship between the geometry of the valve plate and the volumetric efficiency of the piston pump. For the first time, the resulting expression presents the theoretical considerations of the fluid operating conditions, the efficiency of axial piston pumps, and the valve plate designs. New terminology, such as discrepancy of pressure carryover (DPC) and carryover cross-porting (CoCp), is introduced to explain the fundamental principles. The important results derived from this study can provide clear recommendations for the definition of the geometries required to achieve an efficient design, especially for the valve plate timings. The theoretical results are validated by simulations and experiments conducted by testing multiple valve plates under various operating conditions.

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