Shape grammars provide the means to represent the physical embodiment of a class of products in a set of generative rules. Once developed, the shape grammar can be used to generate new forms through automated synthesis or interaction by one or more designers. Creating the shape rules has been most often performed after the design process by examining existing designs. Furthermore, the approach to create a set of rules from an existing set of products was usually an ad hoc process of generalizing form, identifying feature options, and classifying logical subdivisions of the complete product geometry. This paper proposes a more explicit method of shape grammar creation, that is, aligned with well-known design methodologies in order to enable the creation of a shape grammar during the new product development process. The established methodology for function first design and design exploration provides many of the requisite steps for creating a shape grammar, connecting customer requirements and constraints to product form and provides a skeleton onto which a rule creation approach is mapped. An example is included in which the proposed methodology is used to create a shape grammar that represents the internal components of a bladeless slurry pump in order to support design exploration driven by simulation and experimentation.

References

References
1.
Stiny
,
G.
, and
Gips
,
J.
, 1972, “
Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture
,”
Inf. Process.
,
71
, pp.
1460
1465
.
2.
Stiny
,
G.
, 2001,
“How to Calculate with Shapes,” Formal Engineering Design Synthesis
,
Antonsson
,
E.K.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, eds.,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
, pp.
20
64
.
3.
Stiny
,
G.
, 1980, “
Introduction to Shape and Shape Grammars
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
7
, pp.
343
351
.
4.
Brown
,
K. N.
,
McMahon
,
C. A.
, and
Sims Williams
,
J. H.
, 1994, “
A Formal Language for the Design of Manufacturable Objects
,” in
Formal Methods for CAD
,
J. S.
Gero
and
E.
Tyugu
, eds.,
Elsevier
,
The Netherlands
.http://www.sigmod.org/publications/dblp/db/conf/ifip5-2/ifip5-2-1994.htmlhttp://www.sigmod.org/publications/dblp/db/conf/ifip5-2/ifip5-2-1994.html
5.
Shea
,
K.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 1997, “
Innovative Dome Design: Applying Geodesic Patterns with Shape Annealing
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
11
, pp.
379
394
.
6.
Agarwal
,
M.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 1998, “
A Blend of Different Tastes: The Language of Coffee Makers
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
25
, pp.
205
226
.
7.
Agarwal
,
M.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Stiny
,
G.
, 2000, “
A Micro Language: Generating MEMS Resonators by Using a Coupled Form-Function Shape Grammar
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
27
, pp.
615
626
.
8.
McCormack
,
J.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2002, “
Designing Inner Hood Panels Through a Shape Grammar-Based Framework,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
16
, pp.
273
290
.
9.
Speller
,
T. H.
,
Whitney
,
D.
, and
Crawley
,
E.
, 2007, “
Using Shape Grammar to Derive Cellular Automata Rule Patterns
,”
Complex Syst.
,
17
, pp.
79
102
.
10.
Stiny
,
G.
, and
Mitchell
,
W. J.
, 1978, “
The Palladian Grammar
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
5
, pp.
5
18
.
11.
Stiny
,
G.
, and
Mitchell
,
W. J.
, 1980, “
The Grammar of Paradise: On the Generation of Mughul Gardens
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
7
, pp.
209
226
.
12.
Koning
,
H.
, and
Eizenberg
,
J.
, 1981,
“The Language of the Prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie Houses,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
8
, pp.
295
323
.
13.
Flemming
,
U.
, 1986, “
More Than A Sum of Parts: The Grammar of Queen Anne Houses
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
14
, pp.
323
350
.
14.
Herbert
,
T.
,
Sanders
,
I.
, and
Mills
,
G.
, 1994, “
African Shape Grammar: A Language of Linear Ndebele Homesteads
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
21
, pp.
453
476
.
15.
Chiou
,
S. C.
, and
Krishnamurti
,
R.
, 1995, “
The Grammar of Taiwanese Traditional Vernacular Dwellings
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
22
, pp.
689
720
.
16.
Cagdas
,
G.
, 1996, “
A Shape Grammar Model for Designing Row-houses
,”
Des. Stud.
,
17
, pp.
35
51
.
17.
Colakoglu
,
B.
, 2005, “
Design by Grammar: An Interpretation and Generation of Vernacular Hayat Houses in Contemporary Context
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
32
, pp.
141
149
.
18.
Knight
,
T.
, 1980, “
The Generation of Hepplewhite-style Chair-back Designs
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
7
, pp.
227
238
.
19.
Pugliese
,
M.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2002, “
Capturing a Rebel: Modeling the Harley-Davidson Brand Through A Motorcycle Shape Grammar
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
13
, pp.
139
156
.
20.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
,
Pawlicki
,
R.
, and
Smith
,
R. C.
, 2006, “
Creating Cross-Over Vehicles: Defining and Combining Vehicle Classes Using Shape Grammars
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
20
, pp.
217
246
.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0890060406060185http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0890060406060185
21.
McCormack
,
J. P.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2003, “
Extending the Representation Capabilities of Shape Grammars: A Parametric Matching Technique for Shapes Defined by Curved Lines
,”
AAAI Spring Symposium. Computational Synthesis
, March 24–27.
22.
Smyth
,
M.
, and
Edmonds
,
E.
, 2000, “
Supporting Design Through the Strategic Use of Shape Grammars
,”
Knowl.-Based Syst.
,
13
, pp.
385
393
.
23.
Knight
,
T. W.
, 1998,
“Designing a Shape Grammar: Problems of Predictability,” Artificial Intelligence in Design’98
,
Gero
,
J. S.
and
Sudweeks
,
F.
, eds.,
Kluwer Academic
,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands
, pp.
499
516
.
24.
Otto
,
K.
, and
Wood
,
K.
, 2001,
Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Development
,
Prentice Hall
,
Upper Saddle River, NJ
.
25.
McCormack
,
J.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Antaki
,
J.
, 2008, “
Aligning Shape Rule Creation with Modular Design: Minimizing the Cost of Using Shape Grammars
,”
Proceedings of the 2008 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference: Design Theory and Methodology DETC08/DTM–49366
New York, NY
, August 3–6.
26.
Stiny
,
G.
, and
Gips
,
J.
, 1980, “
Production Systems and Grammars: A Uniform Characterization
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
7
, pp.
399
408
.
27.
Krishnamurti
,
R.
, and
Earl
,
C. F.
, 1992, “
Shape Recognition in Three Dimensions
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
19
, pp.
585
603
.
28.
Krishnamurti
,
R.
, 1980, “
The Arithmetic of Shapes
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
7
, pp.
463
484
.
29.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Boatwright
,
P.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2008, “
A Methodology for Creating a Statistically Derived Shape Grammar Composed of Non-obvious Shape Chunks
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
18
, pp.
181
196
.
30.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Boatwright
,
P.
, and
Cagan
,
J.
, 2008, “
Identifying Product Shape Relationships Using Principal Component Analysis
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
18
, pp.
163
180
.
31.
Orsborn
,
S.
,
Cagan
,
J.
, and
Boatwright
,
P.
, 2008, “
Automating the Creation of Shape Grammar Rules
,”
Proceedings of the 2008 Design Computing and Cognition Conference
, June 23–25,
Atlanta, GA
.
32.
Sridharan
,
P.
, and
Campbell
,
M.
, 2005,
“A Study on the Grammatical Construction of Function Structures,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
,
19
, pp.
139
160
.
33.
Knight
,
T.
, 1983, “
Transformations of Languages of Design—Part 1
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
10
, pp.
125
128
.
34.
Knight
,
T.
, 1983, “
Transformations of Languages of Design—Part 2
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
10
, pp.
129
154
.
35.
Knight
,
T.
, 1983, “
Transformations of Languages of Design—Part 3
,”
Environ. Plan. B: Plan. Des.
,
10
, pp.
155
177
.
36.
Li
,
X.
, and
Schmidt
,
L. C.
,
He
,
W.
,
Li
,
L.
, and
Qian
,
Y.
, 2004, “
Transformation of an EGT Grammar: New Grammar, New Designs
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
126
, pp.
753
756
.
37.
Tesla
,
N.
, 1913, “
Turbine
”, U.S. Patent No. 1,061,206.
38.
Rice
,
W.
, 1991,
“Tesla Turbomachinery,” Proceedings of the IV International Nikola Tesla Symposium
, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
You do not currently have access to this content.