Modular product design has received great attention for about 10 years, but few works have proposed tools to either jointly design the functional and physical architectures or propagate the impact of evolutions from one domain to another. In this paper, we present a new method supporting the product architecture design. In new product development situations or in re-engineering projects, system architects could use this method in the early design stages to predetermine cohesive modules and integrative elements and to simulate a domain architecture by propagating architecture choices from another domain. To illustrate our approach, we present an industrial case study concerning the design of a new automobile powertrain.

1.
IEEE Computer Society
, 2005, “
Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process
,” IEEE Std 1220™, Revision of IEEE Std 1220-1998.
2.
Suh
,
N. P.
, 1990,
Principles of Design
,
Oxford University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
3.
Ulrich
,
K. T.
, 1995, “
The Role of Product Architecture in the Manufacturing Firm
,”
Res. Policy
0048-7333,
24
, pp.
419
440
.
4.
Baldwin
,
C. Y.
, and
Clark
,
K. B.
, 2000,
Design Rules: The Power of Modularity Design
,
MIT
,
Cambridge, MA
.
5.
Maier
,
M. W.
, and
Rechtin
,
E.
, 2002,
The Art of Systems Architecting
,
2nd ed.
,
CRC
,
New York
.
6.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Chakrabarti
,
A.
, and
Bligh
,
T. P.
, 1999, “
Transforming Functional Solutions Into Physical Solutions
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Design Theory and Methodology Conference
, Las Vegas, NV, Sept., Paper No. DETC/DTM-8768, pp.
12
16
.
7.
Baxter
,
J. E.
,
Juster
,
N. P.
, and
Pennington
,
A.
, 1994, “
A Functional Data Model for Assemblies Used to Verify Product Design Specifications
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B
0954-4054,
208
, pp.
235
244
.
8.
Browning
,
T. R.
, 2001, “
Applying the Design Structure Matrix to System Decomposition and Integration Problems
,”
IEEE Trans. Eng. Manage.
0018-9391,
48
, pp.
292
306
.
9.
Sosa
,
M.
,
Eppinger
,
S.
, and
Rowles
,
C.
, 2003, “
Identifying Modular and Integrative Systems and Their Impact on Design Team Interactions
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
125
(
2
), pp.
240
252
.
10.
Muffatto
,
M.
, and
Roveda
,
M.
, 2002, “
Product Architecture and Platforms: A Conceptual Framework
,”
Int. J. Technol. Manage.
0267-5730,
24
(
1
), pp.
1
16
.
11.
Farrell
,
S.
, and
Simpson
,
T. W.
, 2008, “
A Method to Improve Platform Leveraging in a Market Segmentation Grid for an Existing Product Line
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
130
(
3
), pp.
031403
.
12.
Khajavirad
,
A.
, and
Michalek
,
J.
, 2008., “
A Decomposed Gradient-Based Approach for Generalized Platform Selection and Variant Design in Product Family Optimization
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
130
(
7
), pp.
071101
.
13.
Simpson
,
T. W.
, 2004, “
Product Platform Design and Customization: Status and Promise
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
18
(
1
), pp.
3
20
.
14.
Zha
,
X. F.
, and
Sriram
,
R. D.
, 2006, “
Platform-Based Product Design and Development: A Knowledge-Intensive Support Approach
,”
Knowl. Base. Syst.
,
19
, pp.
524
543
. 0950-7051
15.
Jiao
J.
,
Simpson
T.
, and
Siddique
Z.
, 2007, “
Product Family Design and Platform-based Product Development: a State-of-the-Art Review
,”
J. Intell. Manuf.
0956-5515,
18
(
1
), pp.
5
29
.
16.
Alizon
,
F.
,
Khadke
,
K.
,
Thevenot
,
H. J.
,
Gershenson
,
J. K.
,
Marion
,
T. J.
,
Shooter
,
S. B.
, and
Simpson
,
T. W.
, 2007, “
Frameworks for Product Family Design and Development
,”
Concurr. Eng. Res. Appl.
1063-293X,
15
, pp.
187
199
.
17.
Steward
,
R. P.
, and
Donald
,
V.
, 1981, “
The Design Structure System: A Method for Managing the Design of Complex Systems
,”
IEEE Trans. Eng. Manage.
0018-9391,
28
(
3
), pp.
71
74
.
18.
Pimmler
,
T. U.
, and
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, 1994, “
Integration Analysis of Product Decompositions
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Design Theory and Methodology Conference (DTM’94)
,
68
, pp.
343
351
.
19.
Kusiak
,
A.
, and
Huang
,
C. C.
, 1996, “
Development of Modular Products
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A
1070-9886,
19
(
4
), pp.
523
538
.
20.
Stone
,
R.
,
Wood
,
K.
, and
Crawford
,
R.
, 2000, “
A Heuristic Method for Identifying Modules for Product Architectures
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
21
, pp.
5
31
.
21.
Whitfield
,
R. I.
,
Smith
,
J. S.
, and
Duffy
,
A. H. B.
, 2002, “
Identifying Component Modules
,”
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design
, Cambridge, UK, Jul. 15–17, pp.
571
592
.
22.
Yu
,
T.
,
Yassine
,
A.
, and
Goldberg
,
D.
, 2003, “
Genetic Algorithm for Developing Modular Product Architectures
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 15th International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology
, Chicago, IL, Sept.
23.
Yu
,
T.
,
Yassine
,
A.
, and
Goldberg
,
A.
, 2007, “
An Information Theoretic Method for Developing Modular Architectures Using Genetic Algorithms
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
18
(
2
), pp.
91
109
.
24.
Sharman
,
D.
, and
Yassine
,
A.
, 2007, “
Architectural Valuation Using the Design Structure Matrix and Real Options Theory
,”
Concurr. Eng. Res. Appl.
1063-293X,
15
(
2
), pp.
157
173
.
25.
Alizon
,
F.
,
Thevenot
,
H. J.
, and
Shooter
,
S. B.
, 2006, “
Design Structure Matrix Flow for Improving Identification and Specification of Modules
,”
ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Philadelphia, PA, ASME Paper No. DETC2006-DTM99524.
26.
Alizon
,
F.
,
Moon
,
S. K.
,
Shooter
,
S. B.
, and
Simpson
,
T. W.
, 2007, “
Three Dimensional Design Structure Matrix With Cross-Module and Cross-Interface Analysis
,”
ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences—Design Automation Conference
,
F.
Liou
, ed., Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 4–7, ASME Paper No. DETC2007/DAC-34510.
27.
Lee
,
H.
,
Seol
,
H.
,
Sung
,
N.
,
Hong
,
Y. -K.
, and
Park
,
Y.
, 2007, “
Analyzing Design Change Impacts in Modular Products With Analytic Network Process
,”
ASME 2007 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Las Vegas, NV, Paper No. DETC2007-35880.
28.
Sharman
,
D.
, and
Yassine
,
A.
, 2004, “
Characterizing Complex Product Architectures
,”
J. Syst. Eng.
0022-4820,
7
(
1
), pp.
35
60
.
29.
Chen
,
K. M.
, and
Liu
,
R. J.
, 2005, “
Interface Strategies in Modular Product Innovation
,”
Technovation
0166-4972,
25
, pp.
771
782
.
30.
Crawley
,
E.
,
De Weck
,
O.
,
Eppinger
,
S.
,
Magee
,
C.
,
Moses
,
J.
,
Seering
,
W.
,
Schindall
,
J.
,
Wallace
,
D.
, and
Whitney
,
D.
, 2004, “
The Influence of Architecture in Engineering Systems
,”
Monograph, 1st Engineering Systems Symposium
, M.I.T., March 29–31.
31.
Dobrescu
,
G.
, and
Reich
,
Y.
, 2003, “
Progressive Sharing of Modules Among Product Variants
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
35
, pp.
791
806
.
32.
Stone
,
R.
,
McAdams
,
D.
, and
Kayyalethekkel
,
V.
, 2004, “
A Product Architecture-Based Conceptual DFA Technique
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
25
(
3
), pp.
301
325
.
33.
Sosa
,
M.
,
Eppinger
,
S.
, and
Rowles
,
C.
, 2007, “
A Network Approach to Define Modularity of Components in Complex Products
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
129
(
11
), pp.
1118
1129
.
34.
Blackenfelt
,
M.
, and
Sellgren
,
U.
, 2000, “
Design of Robust Interfaces in Modular Products
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences
, Baltimore, MD, Sept. 10–13, Paper No. DETC00/DAC-14486.
35.
Fixson
,
S. K.
, 2005, “
Product Architecture Assessment: A Tool to Link Product, Process and Supply Chain Design Decisions
,”
J. Oper. Manage.
,
23
, pp.
345
369
. 0272-6963
36.
Erixon
,
G.
, 1998, “
Modular Function Deployment—A Method for Product Modularisation
,” Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
37.
Gu
,
P.
, and
Sosale
,
S.
, 1999, “
Product Modularization for Life Cycle Engineering
,”
Rob. Comput.-Integr. Manufact.
0736-5845,
15
, pp.
387
401
.
38.
Alexander
,
C.
, 1964,
Notes on the Synthesis of Form
,
Harvard University Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
39.
Hartigan
,
J.
, 1975,
Clustering Algorithms
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
40.
Idicula
,
J.
, 1995, “
Planning for Concurrent Engineering
,” Gintic Institute Research Report, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
41.
Fernandez
,
C.
, 1998, “
Integration Analysis of Product Architecture to Support Effective Team Co-Location
,” MS thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
42.
Thebeau
,
R.
, 2001, “
Knowledge Management of System Interfaces and Interactions for Product Development Processes
,” MS thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
43.
Malmqvist
,
J.
, 2002, “
A Classification of Matrix Based Methods for Product Modeling
,”
Proceedings of Design 2002
, Cavtat-Dubrovnik, Croatia.
44.
Clarkson
,
P. J.
,
Simons
,
C.
, and
Eckert
,
C.
, 2001, “
Predicting Change Propagation in Complex Design
,”
Proceedings of the ASME DETC 2001
, Pittsburgh, PA, Paper No DETC2001/DTM-21698.
45.
Dahmus
,
J. B.
,
Gonzalez-Zugasti
,
J. P.
, and
Otto
,
K. N.
, 2001, “
Modular Product Architecture
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
22
(
5
), pp.
409
424
.
46.
Chen
,
L.
,
Ding
,
Z.
, and
Li
,
S.
, 2005, “
A Formal Two-Phase Method for Decomposition of Complex Design Problems
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
127
(
2
), pp.
184
195
.
47.
Akao
,
Y.
, 1990,
Quality Function Deployment, QFD—Integrating Customer Requirements into Product Design
,
Productivity
,
Portland, ON
.
48.
Strawbridge
,
Z.
,
McAdams
,
D.
, and
Stone
,
R.
, 2002, “
A Computational Approach to Conceptual Design
,”
Proceedings of the DETC 02
, Montreal, Canada, Sept. 29–Oct. 2.
49.
Danilovic
,
M.
, and
Browning
,
T. R.
, 2007, “
Managing Complex Product Development Projects With Design Structures Matrices and Domain Mapping Matrices
,”
Int. J. Proj. Manage.
0263-7863,
25
, pp.
300
314
.
50.
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, and
Salminen
,
V.
, 2001, “
Patterns of Product Development Interactions
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 01
, Glasgow, UK, Aug. 21–23, Vol.
1
, pp.
283
290
.
51.
Sosa
,
M.
, 2007, “
Aligning Process, Product, and Organizational Architectures in Software Development
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED’07
, Paris, France, Aug. 28–31.
52.
Meier
,
C.
,
Yassine
,
A.
, and
Browning
,
T.
, 2007, “
Design Process Sequencing With Competent Genetic Algorithms
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
129
(
6
), pp.
566
594
.
53.
Hölttä
,
K.
, and
Salonen
,
M.
, 2003, “
Comparing Three Different Modularity Methods
,”
Proceedings of DETC’03, Design Engineering Technical Conferences, ASME 2003
, Chicago, IL, Sept..
54.
Dong
Q.
, and
Whitney
D.
, 2001, “
Designing a Requirement Driven Product Development Process
,”
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology (DTM 2001)
, Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 9–12.
55.
Dong
Q.
, 2002, “
Predicting and Managing System Interactions at Early Phase of the Product Development Process
,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
56.
Suh
,
N. P.
, 2001,
Axiomatic Design: Advances and Applications
,
Oxford University Press
,
New York
.
57.
Ulrich
,
K. T.
, and
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, 2008,
Product Design & Development
,
4th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
58.
Pahl
,
G.
, and
Beitz
,
W.
, 1996,
Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach
,
2nd ed.
,
Springer-Verlag
,
London
.
59.
Tseng
,
M.
, and
Jiao
,
J.
, 1997, “
A Module Identification Approach to the Electrical Design of Electronic Products by Clustering Analysis of the Design Matrix
,”
Comput. Ind. Eng.
0360-8352,
33
(
1–2
), pp.
229
233
.
60.
Kurtoglu
,
T.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, 2008, “
A Graph-Based Fault Identification and Propagation Framework for Functional Design of Complex Systems
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
130
(
5
), pp.
051401
.
61.
Zimmerman
,
H.
, 1991,
Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Applications
,
2nd ed.
,
Kluwer
,
Boston, MA
.
62.
Dubois
,
D.
, and
Prade
,
H.
, 1980,
Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications
,
Academic
,
New York
.
63.
Dunn
,
T. P.
, and
Sussman
,
J. M.
, 2006, “
Design Structure Matrices to Improve Decentralized Urban Transportation Systems
,”
Transp. Res. Rec.
0361-1981,
1978
, pp.
193
200
.
64.
Helmer
,
R.
,
Yassine
,
A.
, and
Meier
,
C.
, 2008, “
Systematic Module and Interface Definition Using Component DSM
,”
J. Eng. Design
0954-4828; see http://www.informaworld.com/cmpp/title~content=g769561205~db=all~tab=forthcominghttp://www.informaworld.com/cmpp/title~content=g769561205~db=all~tab=forthcoming.
65.
Kalligeros
,
K.
, 2006, “
Platforms and Real Options in Large-Scale Engineering Systems
,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
66.
Keller
,
R.
,
Eckert
,
C.
, and
Clarkson
,
J.
, 2006, “
Matrices or Node-link Diagrams: Which Visual Representation is Better for Visualising Connectivity Models?
Information Visualization
,
5
(
1
), pp.
62
76
.
67.
Hölttä
,
K.
,
Tang
,
V.
, and
Seering
,
W.
, 2003, “
Modularizing Product Architectures Using Dendrograms
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design
, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 19–21.
68.
Holmqvist
,
T.
, and
Persson
,
M.
, 2003, “
Analysis and Improvement of Product Modularization Methods: Their Ability to Deal With Complex Products
,”
Syst. Eng.
,
6
(
3
), pp.
195
209
. 1098-1241
69.
Henderson
,
R. M.
, and
Clark
,
K. B.
, 1990, “
Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms
,”
Adm. Sci. Q.
0001-8392,
35
, pp.
9
30
.
70.
Sered
,
Y.
, and
Reich
,
Y.
, 2006, “
Standardization and Modularization Driven by Minimizing Overall Process Effort
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
38
, pp.
405
416
.
71.
Bonjour
,
E.
,
Harmel
,
G.
,
Micaëlli
,
J. -P.
, and
Dulmet
,
M.
, 2009, “
Simulating Change Propagation Between Product Architecture and Development Organization
,”
Int. J. Prod. Dev.
, to be published.
72.
Lindemann
,
U.
, 2007, “
A Vision to Overcome Chaotic “Design for X” Processes in Early Phases
,”
International Conference of Engineering Design, ICED’07
, Paris, France, Aug. 28–31.
You do not currently have access to this content.