In modern product design methodologies, designers are increasingly required to combine elements spanning multiple engineering domains, thus blurring the boundaries between engineering disciplines. Functional modeling with the Functional Basis provides the basic tools required to integrate system models at the conceptual level; however, there is a lack of unified rules to address the structure of functional models. This article covers the development of a signal grammar for functional modeling with a Functional Basis. At the conceptual level, signal flows represent the information vital to a proper system operation. Signal flows are explored through their Functional Basis lexicon and primary/carrier flow relationships. A grammar, consisting of morphology and syntax, is presented and applied to a set of electromechanical, component-based building block examples. To further demonstrate the application of signals in functional modeling, an electromechanical product is explored functionally with the application of the signal grammar.

1.
Stone
,
R.
, and
Wood
,
K.
, 2000, “
Development of a Functional Basis for Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
1050-0472,
122
(
4
), pp.
359
370
.
2.
Miles
,
L.
, 1961,
Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
3.
Pahl
,
G.
, and
Beitz
,
W.
, 1996,
Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach
,
Springer
,
New York
.
4.
Hubka
,
V.
, and
Ernst Eder
,
W.
, 1984,
Theory of Technical Systems
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
5.
Ullman
,
D. G.
, 2002,
The Mechanical Design Process
,
3rd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
6.
Hirtz
,
J.
,
Stone
,
R.
,
McAdams
,
D.
, and
Szykman
,
S. W. K.
, 2002, “
A Functional Basis for Engineering Design: Reconciling and Evolving Previous Efforts
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
13
(
2
), pp.
65
82
.
7.
Sridharan
,
P.
, and
Campbell
,
M. I.
, 2004, “
A Grammar for Functional Structures
,”
Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Salt Lake City, UT
.
8.
Sridharan
,
P.
, and
Campbell
,
M. I.
, 2005, “
A Study on the Grammatical Construction of Function Structures
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604
19
, pp.
139
160
.
9.
2005,
The New Oxford American Dictionary
,
2nd ed.
,
Oxford University Press
,
New York
.
10.
Quirk
,
R.
,
Greenbaum
,
S.
,
Leech
,
G.
, and
Svartvik
,
J.
, 1985,
A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language
,
Longman
,
London
.
11.
Millward
,
C. M.
, 1996,
A Biography of the English Language
,
2nd ed.
,
Harcourt Brace
,
Fort Worth, TX
.
12.
Ulrich
,
K. T.
, and
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, 2004,
Product Design and Development
,
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
,
Boston, MA
.
13.
Cutherell
,
D.
, 1996,
The PDMA Handbook of New Product Development
,
M.
Rosenau
, Jr.
, ed.,
Wiley
,
New York
, Chap. 16.
14.
Fenves
,
S.
, 2001, “
A Core Product Model for Representing Design Information
,”
National Institute of Standards and Technology
, Gaithersburg, MD.
15.
Hundal
,
M.
, 1990, “
A Systematic Method for Developing Function Structures, Solutions and Concept Variants
,”
Mech. Mach. Theory
0094-114X,
25
(
3
), pp.
243
256
.
16.
Miles
,
L.
, 1972,
Techniques of Value Analysis Engineering
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
17.
Otto
,
K.
, and
Wood
,
K.
, 2001,
Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering, Systematic Design, and New Product Development
,
Prentice-Hall
,
New York
.
18.
Dieter
,
G.
, 1991,
Engineering Design: A Materials and Processing Approach
,
2nd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
19.
Little
,
A.
,
Wood
,
K.
, and
McAdams
,
D.
, 1997, “
Functional Analysis: A Fundamental Empirical Study for Reverse Engineering, Benchmarking and Redesign
,”
Proceedings of the 1997 Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Sacramento, CA
, Paper No. 97-DETC/DTM-3879.
20.
Uder
,
S. J.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, 2004, “
Function Based Risk Assessment and Failure Prediction for Unmanned Space Missions
,”
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
,
Anaheim, CA
, Paper No. IMECE2004-60846.
21.
Lough
,
K. G.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, 2006, “
The Risk in Early Design (RED) Method: Likelihood and Consequence Formulations
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
22.
Moon
,
S. K.
,
Kumara
,
S. R. T.
, and
Simpson
,
T. W.
, 2006, “
Data Mining and Fuzzy Clustering to Support Product Family Design
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
23.
Steva
,
E. D.
,
Rice
,
E. N.
,
Marion
,
T. J.
,
Simpson
,
T. W.
, and
Stone
,
R. B.
, 2006, “
Two Methodologies for Identifying Product Platform Elements Within an Existing Set of Products
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
24.
Jordan
,
R. L.
,
Wie
,
M. V.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Wang
,
J.
, and
Terpenny
,
J.
, 2005, “
A Group Technology Based Representation for Product Portfolios
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Long Beach, CA
.
25.
Bohm
,
M.
, and
Stone
,
R.
, 2004, “
Representing Product Functionality to Support Reuse: Conceptual and Supporting Functions
,”
Proceedings of DETC2004
,
Salt Lake City, UT
, Paper No. DETC2004-57693.
26.
Bohm
,
M.
,
Stone
,
R.
, and
Szykman
,
S.
, 2005, “
Enhancing Virtual Product Representations for Advanced Design Repository Systems
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
5
(
4
), pp.
360
372
.
27.
Bohm
,
M. R.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Simpson
,
T. W.
, and
Steva
,
E. D.
, 2006, “
Introduction of a Data Schema: The Inner Workings of a Design Repository
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
28.
Van Wie
,
M.
,
Bryant
,
C.
,
Bohm
,
M.
,
McAdams
,
D.
, and
Stone
,
R.
, 2005, “
A General Model of Function-Based Representations
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
19
(
2
), pp.
89
111
.
29.
Bryant
,
C.
,
Stone
,
R.
,
McAdams
,
D.
,
Kurtoglu
,
T.
, and
Campbell
,
M.
, 2005, “
Concept Generation From the Functional Basis of Design
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 05
,
Melbourne, Australia
.
30.
Vucovich
,
J.
,
Bhardwaj
,
N.
,
Ho
,
H.-H.
,
Ramakrishna
,
M.
, and
Thakur
,
M.
, 2006, “
Concept Generation Algorithms for Repository-Based Early Design
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
31.
Bryant
,
C. R.
,
McAdams
,
D. A.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Kurtoglu
,
T.
, and
Campbell
,
M. I.
, 2006, “
A Validation Study of an Automated Concept Generator Design Tool
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
32.
Hutcheson
,
R. S.
,
Jordan
,
R. L.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Terpenny
,
J. P.
, and
Chang
,
X.
, 2006, “
Application of a Genetic Algorithm to Concept Variant Selection
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
33.
Attaluri
,
V.
,
McAdams
,
D. A.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Crescenzo
,
A. D.
, 2006, “
Visual Representations as an Aid to Concept Generation
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
34.
Galvao
,
A. B.
, and
Sato
,
K.
, 2006, “
Incorporating Affordances into Product Architecture: Methodology and Case Study
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
35.
Park
,
J.
, and
Simpson
,
T. W.
, 2005, “
An Activity-Based Costing Method for Product Family Design in the Early Stages of Development
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences
,
Long Beach, CA
.
36.
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, and
Wie
,
M. V.
, 2005, “
The Function-Failure Design Method
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
1050-0472,
127
(
3
), pp.
397
407
.
37.
Bohm
,
M.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Szykman
,
S.
, 2002, “
Decomposition-Based Failure Mode Identification Method for Risk-Free Diagram in Large Systems
,” ASME J. Mech. Des., submitted.
38.
Hutcheson
,
R. S.
,
McAdams
,
D. A.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, 2006, “
A Function-Based Methodology for Analyzing Critical Events
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
39.
Nagel
,
R. L.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
McAdams
,
D. A.
, 2006, “
A Process Modeling Methodology for Automation of Manual and Time Dependent Processes
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
40.
Nise
,
N. S.
, 2004,
Control Systems Engineering
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
41.
Chen
,
D.
, and
Törngren
,
M.
, 2004, “
A Systematic Approach for Identifying Operational Relationships in Embedded Computer Control Systems
,”
EUROMICRO Conference
,
Rennes, France
.
42.
Chen
,
L.
,
Jayaram
,
M.
, and
Xi
,
J. F.
, 2002, “
A New Functional Representation Scheme for Conceptual Modeling of Mechatronic Systems
,”
Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computer and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Montreal, Canada
.
43.
Jayaram
,
M.
,
Chen
,
L.
, and
Xi
,
J. F.
, 2003, “
Functional Modeling of Complex Mechatronic Systems
,”
Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computer and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Chicago, IL
.
44.
Rajan
,
J. R.
, 2002, “
A Robust Functional Modeling Method in Product Design
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, pp.
73
135
.
45.
Rajan
,
J. R.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
, and
Wood
,
K. L.
, 2003, “
Functional Modeling of Control Systems
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design
,
Stockholm
.
46.
Gemmy Industries Corporation
, Digger Dog (www.gemmy.comwww.gemmy.com).
47.
Progelhof
,
R. C.
, 1993,
Polymer Engineering Principles: Properties and Tests for Design
,
Hanser
,
Munich
.
48.
Gowariker
,
V. R.
,
Viswanathan
,
N. V.
, and
Sreedhar
,
J.
, 1986,
Polymer Science
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.