Reconfigurable systems can attain different configurations at different times thereby altering their functional abilities. Such systems are particularly suitable for specific classes of applications in which their ability to undergo changes easily can be exploited to fulfill new demands, allow for evolution, and improve survivability. This paper identifies the main factors that drive the need for reconfigurability and proposes methods for modeling reconfigurable systems. A survey of 33 different reconfigurable systems is also presented to provide broader insights and general design guidelines for reconfigurable systems.

2.
Underwood
,
K.
, 2004, “
FPGA vs. CPUS: Trends in Peak Floating-Point Performance
,”
Proceedings of the ACM International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays
, Feb. 24, Monterrey, CA.
3.
Keymeulen
,
D.
,
Zebulum
,
R.
,
Jin
,
Y.
, and
Stoica
,
A.
, 2000, “
Fault-Tolerant Evolvable Hardware Using Field-Programmable Transistor Arrays
,”
IEEE Trans. Reliab.
0018-9529,
49
(
3
), pp.
305
316
.
4.
Mondin
,
M.
,
Presti
,
L.
, and
Scova
,
A.
, 2002, “
A software Radio-Based Reconfigurable Transponder for Space Applications
,”
Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
,
2
, pp.
839
845
.
5.
Cabo
,
J.
,
Bravo
,
R.
,
Lopez
,
E.
, and
Casas
,
O.
, “
Galileo TTC Transponder: A Multimode In-Orbit Reconfigurable Transponder
.”
6.
Mehrabi
,
M.
,
Ulsoy
,
A.
, and
Koren
,
Y.
, 2000, “
Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems: Key to Future Manufacturing
,”
J. Intell. Manuf.
0956-5515,
11
, pp.
403
419
.
7.
Chen
,
L.
,
Xi
,
F.
, and
Macwan
,
A.
, 2005, “
Optimal Module Selection for Preliminary Design of Reconfigurable Machine Tools
,”
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
1087-1357,
127
, pp.
104
115
.
8.
Joshi
,
S. P.
,
Tidwell
,
Z.
,
Crossley
,
W. A.
, and
Ramakrishnan
,
S.
, 2004, “
Comparison of Morphing Wing Strategies Based Upon Aircraft Performance Impacts
,”
45th AIAA∕ASME∕ASCE∕AHS∕ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference
, April 2004, Palm Springs, CA, paper No. AIAA-2004-1722.
10.
Miller
,
J.
,
Guerrero
,
J.
,
Goldstein
,
D.
, and
Robinson
,
T.
, 2002, “
Spaceframe: Modular Spacecraft Building Blocks for Plug and Play Spacecraft
,”
16th Annual∕USU Conference on Small Satellites
, 2002, Logan, UT.
11.
de Weck
,
O. L.
,
Nadir
,
W.
,
Wong
,
J.
,
Bounova
,
G.
, and
Coffee
,
T.
, 2005, “
Modular Structures for Manned Space Exploration: The Truncated Octahedron as a Building Block
,”
First Space Exploration Conference: Continuing the Voyage of Discovery
, 30 Jan.–1 Feb. 2005, Orlando, FL, Paper No. AIAA-2005-2764.
12.
Clark
,
P.
, and
Rilee
,
M.
, 2004, “
Bees for Ants: Space Mission Applications for the Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm
,”
AIAA First Intelligent Systems Technical Conference
, Sept. 2004, Chicago, IL, Paper No. AIAA-2004-6303.
13.
Olewnik
,
A.
,
Brauen
,
T.
,
Ferguson
,
S.
, and
Kemper
,
L.
, 2004, “
A Framework for Flexible Systems and Its Implementation in Multiattribute Decision Making
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
1050-0472,
126
, pp.
412
419
.
14.
Singh
,
V.
,
Skiles
,
S.
,
Krager
,
J.
,
Wood
,
K.
,
Jensen
,
D.
, and
Szmerekovsky
,
A.
, 2006, “
Innovations in Design Through Transformation: A Fundamental Study of Transformation Principles
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Sept. 10–13, 2006, Philadelphia, PA, Paper No. DETC2006-99575.
15.
Khire
,
R.
, and
Messac
,
A.
, 2006, “
Selection-Integrated Optimization (SIO) Methodology for Optimal Design of Adaptive Systems
,”
ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Sept. 10–13, 2006, Philadelphia, PA, Paper No. DETC2006-99322.
16.
Dori
,
D.
, 2002,
Object-Process Methodology
,
Springer
,
New York
.
18.
Howard
,
R.
, 1971,
Dynamic Probabilistic Systems Vol. 1: Markov Models
,
Wiley & Sons
,
New York
.
19.
Bertsekas
,
D.
, and
Tsitsiklis
,
J.
, 2002,
Introduction to Probability
,
Athena Scientific
,
Belmont, MA
.
20.
Feller
,
W.
, 1968,
An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications
, Vol.
1
,
3rd ed.
Wiley & Sons
,
New York
.
21.
Siddiqi
,
A.
,
Iagnemma
,
K.
, and
de Weck
,
O.
, 2006, “
Reconfigurability in Planetary Surface Vehicles: Modeling Approaches and Case Study
,”
J. Br. Interplanet. Soc.
0007-084X,
59
.
22.
Shinners
,
S.
, 1967,
Techniques of System Engineering
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
23.
Ferguson
,
S.
, and
Lewis
,
K.
, 2006, “
Effective Development of Reconfigurable Systems Using Linear State Feedback Control
,”
AIAA J.
0001-1452,
44
(
4
), pp.
868
878
.
24.
Asl
,
F.
,
Ulsoy
,
A.
, and
Koren
,
Y.
, 2000, “
Dynamic Modeling and Stability of the Reconfiguration of Manufacturing Systems
,”
Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation
, July 23–26, 2000, Ann Arbor, MI.
25.
Siddiqi
,
A.
, 2006, “
Reconfigurability in Space Systems: Architecting Framework and Case Studies
,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
27.
Codrington
,
A.
, 2002, Allmodpro.
28.
McGray
,
D.
, 2004, “
Hot Wheels
,”
Wired Magazine
, October.
30.
Walczyk
,
D.
,
Lakshmikanthan
,
J.
, and
Kirk
,
D.
, 1998, “
Development of a Reconfigurable Tool for Forming Aircraft Body Panels
,”
J. Manuf. Syst.
0278-6125,
17
(
4
), pp.
287
296
.
31.
Yim
,
M.
,
Roufas
,
K.
,
Duff
,
D.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Eldershaw
,
C.
, and
Homans
,
S.
, 2003, “
Modular Reconfigurable Robots in Space Applications
,”
Auton. Rob.
0929-5593,
14
, pp.
225
237
.
32.
Clark
,
P.
, and
Rilee
,
M.
, 2004, “
Lara: Near Term Reconfiguration Concepts and Components for Lunar Exploration and Exploitation
,”
55th International Astronautical Congress
, October 4–8, 2004, Vancouver, Canada, Paper No. IAC-04-IAA.3.8.1.08.
33.
Schenker
,
P.
, 2000, “
Reconfigurable Robots for All Terrain Exploration
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
4196
, pp.
454
468
.
34.
Quinn
,
J.
, Repairman in Space.
35.
Rodgers
,
L.
, 2005, “
Concepts and Technology Development for the Autonomous Assembly and Reconfiguration of Modular Space Systems
,” M.S. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
36.
Chau
,
S.
,
Sengupta
,
A.
,
Tran
,
T.
, and
Bakhshi
,
A.
, 2002, “
Ultra Long-Life Spacecraft for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions
,”
53rd International Astronautical Congress
, October 10–19, 2002, Houston, TX, Paper No. IAC-02-U.2.05.
37.
Nishinaga
,
N.
,
Takeuchi
,
M.
, and
Suzuki
,
R.
, 2004, “Reconfigurable Communication Equipment on SmartSat-I,” IEIC Technical Reoprt, Vol.
104
, No. 212, pp.
133
134
.
38.
Simons
,
R.
,
Chun
,
D.
, and
Katehi
,
L.
, 2001, “
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators for Antenna Reconfigurability
,”
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research Center
, Tech. Rep. No. NASA∕CR-2001-210612.
41.
Wells
,
V.
,
Rutherford
,
J.
, and
Corgiat
,
A.
, 1999, “
Mission and Concept Evaluation for a Multirole, Mission-Adaptable Air Vehicle
,”
Aircraft Design
,
2
, pp.
65
80
.
43.
Magee
,
C.
, and
de Weck
,
O. L.
, 2004, “
Complex System Classification
,”
14th Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE)
, June 21–24, 2004, Toulouse, France.
44.
Hauck
,
S.
, 1998, “
The Future of Reconfigurable Systems
,”
5th Canadian Conference on Field Programmable Devices
, June 1998, Montreal, Canada.
45.
Fricke
,
E.
, and
Schulz
,
A.
, 2003, “
Design for Changeability (DFC): Principles to Enable Changes in Systems Throughout Their Entire Lifecycle
,”
J. Syst. Eng.
0022-4820,
8
(
4
), pp.
342
359
.
46.
Siddiqi
,
A.
, and
de Weck
,
O.
, 2006, “
Self-Similar Modular Architectures for Reconfigurable Space Systems
,”
57th International Astronautical Congress
, October 2–6, 2006, Valencia, Spain, Paper No. IAC-06-D1-1.4.03.
47.
Johnson
,
G. W.
, ed., 1998,
LabVIEW Power Programming
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
48.
Gu
,
P.
,
Hashemian
,
M.
, and
Nee
,
A.
, 2004, “
Adaptable Design
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
53
(
2
).
49.
Nishinaga
,
N.
,
Ogawa
,
Y.
,
Takayama
,
Y.
,
Takahashi
,
T.
,
Kubooka
,
T.
, and
Umehara
,
H.
, 2003, “
Softsat: Reconfigurable Communication Satellite System
,”
21st International Communications Satellite Systems Conference and Exhibit
, April 15–19, 2003, Yokohama, Japan, Paper No. AIAA-2003-2420.
51.
Sobieszczanski-Sobieskr
,
J.
,
Altus
,
T.
,
Phillips
,
M.
, and
Sandusky
,
R.
, 2003, “
Bilevel Integrated System Synthesis for Concurrent and Distributed Processing
,”
AIAA J.
0001-1452,
41
(
10
), pp.
1996
2003
.
You do not currently have access to this content.