Physical models of machines have played an important role in the history of engineering for teaching, analyzing, and exploring mechanical concepts. Many of these models have been replaced today by computational representations, but new rapid-prototyping (RP) technologies are now allowing reintroduction of physical models as an intuitive way to demonstrate mechanical concepts. This paper reports on the use of RP to document, preserve, reproduce, and share in three dimensions, historic machines, and mechanisms. We have reproduced several preassembled, fully functional historic mechanisms from the Cornell Collection of Reuleaux Kinematic Models, and made these available as part of a new online museum of mechanism: Not only can visitors read descriptions, view pictures and videos, and interact with simulations of machines, but they can now also download and 3D-print their own physical functional replicas. We expect that this new form of “physical” preservation will become prevalent in future archives.

1.
Voigt
,
W. G.
, 1907, Voigt Catalog., Kinematic Models of Professor Reuleaux, Berlin (available online at KMODDL, see
Saylor
,
et al.
).
2.
Ceccarelli
,
M.
, (Ed.) 2000,
International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms
,
Proc. HMM Kluwer Academic
, Dordrecht.
3.
Moon
,
F. C.
, 2003a, “
Franz Reuleaux: Contributions to 19th Century Kinematics and Theory of Machines
,”
Applied Mechanics Reviews
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, N.Y.
4.
Moon
,
F. C.
, 2003b, “
Robert Willis and Franz Reuleaux: Pioneers in the Theory of Machines
,”
Notes and Records of the Royal Society
, London.
5.
Reuleaux
,
F.
, 1876,
Kinematics of Machinery: Outlines of a Theory of Machines
(
ABW Kennedy
, Translation), MacMillan, London (available online at KMODDL, see
Saylor
,
et al.
).
6.
Reuleaux
,
F.
, 1893,
The Constructor: A Handbook of Machine Design
,
4th ed.
(
HH Suplee
, Translation 1892), Philadelphia (available online at KMODDL, see
Saylor
,
et al.
).
7.
Willis
,
R.
, 1870,
Principles of Mechanisms
, London (available online at KMODDL, see
Saylor
,
et al.
).
8.
Besson
,
J.
, 1569,
Theatre des Instruments
, Lyon: Barthelemy Vincent.
9.
Ramelli
,
A.
, 1588, Le Diverse et Artificiose Machine, Paris, Reprinted by Dover, New York (available online at KMODDL, see
Saylor
,
et al.
).
10.
Bockler
,
G. A.
, 1662, Theatrum machinarvm novvm. Coloniae Agrippinae: Sumptibus Pauli Principis.
11.
Leupold
,
J.
, 1724,
Theatrum Machinarum
, Leipzig.
12.
Saylor
,
J.
,
Walker
,
K.
,
Moon
,
F. C.
,
Henderson
,
D. W.
,
Daimina
,
D.
, and
Lipson
,
H.
, 2004,
Cornell University Kinematic Machines for Design Digital Library (KMODDL)
, http://kmoddl.library.cornell.eduhttp://kmoddl.library.cornell.edu
13.
Shiroshita
,
S.
,
Kumamoto
,
H.
,
Nishihara
,
O
, and
Jing
,
D.
, 2001, Constructing a virtual museum of machine mechanism models imported from Germany during Japanese westernization for higher education: 3D animations based on kinematics and dynamics, presented at
Museums and the Web 2001
(http://www.archimuse.com/mw2001/papers/shiroshita/shiroshita.htmlhttp://www.archimuse.com/mw2001/papers/shiroshita/shiroshita.html)
14.
Montaro
,
M.
et al.
, 2002, “
Material Characterization of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) ABS by Designed Experiments
,” University of California Berkeley Report.
15.
Weiss
,
L. E.
,
Merz
,
R.
,
Prinz
,
F. B.
,
Neplotnik
,
G.
,
Padmanabhan
,
P.
,
Schultz
,
L.
, and
Ramaswami
,
K.
, 1997, “
Shape Deposition Manufacturing of Heterogeneous Structures
,” SME
J. Manuf. Syst.
0278-6125,
16
, pp.
239
248
.
16.
Cham
,
J. G.
,
Pruitt
,
B. L.
,
Cutcosky
,
M. R.
,
Binnard
,
M.
,
Weiss
,
L. E.
, and
Neplotnik
,
G.
, “
Layered Manufacturing with Embedded Components: Process Planning Considerations
,”
Proceedings of DETC99: 1999 ASEM Design Engineering Technical Conference
, Las Vegas, NV.
17.
Lipson
,
H.
, and
Pollack
,
J. B.
, 2000, “
Automatic Design and Manufacture of Artificial Lifeforms
,”
Nature (London)
0028-0836,
406
, pp.
974
978
.
18.
Mavroidis
,
C.
,
DeLaurentis
,
K.
,
Won
,
J.
, and
Alam
,
M.
, 2001, “
Fabrication of Non-Assembly Mechanisms and Robotic Systems Using Rapid Prototyping
,” Trans. ASME, J. Mech. Des.,
123
, pp.
516
524
.
19.
De Laurentis
,
K.
,
Mavroidis
,
C.
, and
Kong
,
F.
, 2004, “
Rapid Fabrication of Non-Assembly Robotic Systems With Embedded Components
,”
IEEE Rob. Autom. Mag.
1070-9932,
24
(
4
), pp.
394
405
.
20.
Kumar
,
V.
, and
Dutta
,
D.
, 1997, “
An Assessment of Data Formats for Layered Manufacturing
,”
Adv. Eng. Software
0965-9978,
28
, pp.
151
164
.
21.
Kulkarni
,
P.
,
Marsan
,
A.
, and
Dutta
,
D.
, 2000, “
A Review of Process Planning Techniques in Layered Manufacturing
,”
Rapid Prototyping J.
1355-2546,
6
, pp.
18
35
.
22.
Malone
,
E.
,
Rasa
,
K.
,
Cohen
,
D.
,
Isaacson
,
T.
,
Lashley
,
H.
, and
Lipson
,
H.
, 2004, “
Freeform Fabrication Of Zinc-Air Batteries And Electromechanical Assemblies
,”
Rapid Prototyping J.
1355-2546,
10
, pp.
58
69
.
23.
Lipson
,
H.
, 2005, “
Home made: The future of rapid prototyping
,”
IEEE Spectrum
0018-9235 (in press).
24.
Heydenreich
,
L. H.
, and International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation, 1951, Fine Arts Dept. Leonardo da Vinci: biographical sketch by Ludwig Heinrich Heydenreich; models built by R. A. Guatelli.
25.
Leonardo
,
da Vinci
, 1493,
Codex Madrid I
.
26.
Reti
,
L.
, 1980,
The Unknown Leonardo
, see Chap. “
The Engineer
,”
McGraw-Hill
, New York.
You do not currently have access to this content.