This paper describes an optimal design procedure for improving the injection rate histories of an electronic control diesel fuel injection system (ECD-FIS) with sleeve-timing-controlled pump. The research objective was to develop an approach for upgrading an existing ECD-FIS by performing only some low-cost modifications on its design. Therefore, the design variables are related to a relative small number of geometrical and control parameters of the injection system. The geometrical parameters influence only the shape of a rational Be´zier curve, representing the cam profile of the pump. The control parameters influence the injection timing and injection quantity. These control parameters are introduced into the set of design variables in order to enable good results over the whole engine operating regime. The design problem is formulated in a form of a non-linear problem of mathematical programming. Several operating regimes are simultaneously taken into account by an appropriate objective function while some geometrical properties of the cam profile as well as some injection parameters are kept within acceptable limits by the imposed constraints. The theory is illustrated with a numerical example.

1.
Belegundu
A. D.
, and
Arora
J. S.
,
1984
, “
A Recursive Quadratic Programming Method with Active Set Strategy for Optimal Design
,”
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
20
, pp.
803
816
.
2.
Dhingra
A. K.
, and
Lee
B. H.
,
1994
, “
A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Single and Multiobjective Structural Optimization with Discrete-Continuous Variables
,”
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
37
, pp.
4059
4080
.
3.
Erlach, H., Chmela, F., Cartellieri, W., Herzog, P., 1995, “Pressure Modulated Injection and Its Effect on Combustion and Emissions of a HD Diesel Engine,” SAE paper 952059.
4.
Farin, G., 1993, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, 3rd ed., Academic Press, San Diego.
5.
Fleury
C.
, and
Braibant
V.
,
1986
, “
Structural Optimization: A New Dual Method Using Mixed Variables
,”
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
23
, pp.
409
428
.
6.
Haug, E. J., Arora, J. S., 1979, Applied Optimal design, John Wiley, New York.
7.
Herzog, P., 1989, “The Ideal Rate of Injection for Swirl-Supported Diesel Engines,” IMechE Seminar on Diesel Fuel Injection Systems, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, pp. 11–18.
8.
Kegl, B., and Mu¨ller, E., 1997, “Optimal Design of a Cam Profile for Diesel Injection Pump,” SAE Paper 970643.
9.
Kegl, B., and Mu¨ller, E., 1997, “Optimal Design of a Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment with Be´zier Curve Cam Profile,” Interim Report, TU Braunschweig.
10.
Kegl
M.
, and
Oblak
M. M.
,
1997
, “
Optimization of Mechanical Systems: On Non-Linear First-Order Approximation With an Additive Convex Term
,”
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
13
, pp.
13
20
.
11.
Kegl
B.
,
1996
, “
Successive Optimal Design Procedure Applied on Conventional Fuel Injection Equipment
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
118
, pp.
490
493
.
12.
Kegl
B.
,
1995
, “
Optimal Design of Conventional In-Line Fuel Injection Equipment
,”
Proceedings of the institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
, Vol.
209
, pp.
135
141
.
13.
Kegl, B., 1995, “An Improved Mathematical Model of Conventional FIE Processes,” SAE paper 950079.
14.
Kegl
M. S.
,
Butinar
B. J.
,
Oblak
M. M.
,
1992
, “
Optimization of Mechanical Systems: On Strategy of Non-linear First-order Approximation
,”
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
33
, pp.
223
234
.
15.
Lim
O. K.
, and
Arora
J. S.
,
1986
, “
An Active Set RQP Algorithm for Engineering Design Optimization
,”
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
, Vol.
57
, pp.
51
65
.
16.
Miyaki, M., Fujisawa, H., Masuda, A., Yamamoto, Y., 1991, “Development of New Electronically Controlled Fuel Injection System ECD-U2 for Diesel Engines,” SAE paper 910252.
17.
Needham, J. R., May, M. P., Doyle, D. M., Faulkner, S. A., 1990, “Injection Timing and Rate Control—A Solution for Low Emissions,” SAE paper 900854.
18.
Nishizawa, K., Ishiwata, H., Yamaguchi, S., 1987, “A New Concept of Diesel Fuel Injection-Timing and Injection Rate Control System,” SAE paper 870434.
19.
Rogers, D. F., and Adams, J. A., 1990, Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
20.
Seher, D., 1992, “Diesel-Einspritzung fu¨r Weniger Emission bei Nutzfahrzeugmotoren,” ATZ/MTZ Sonderheft Motor und Umwelt, pp. 31–33.
21.
Svanberg
K.
,
1987
, “
The Method of Moving Asymptotes—A New Method for Structural Optimization
,”
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
24
, pp.
359
373
.
22.
Vanderplaats, G. N., 1984, Numerical Optimization Techniques for Engineering Design: With Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York.
This content is only available via PDF.