Virtual reality (VR) provides a design space consisting of three-dimensional computer images where participants can interact with these images using natural human motions in real time. In the field of engineering design, prototyping and design verification have provided the initial application areas for VR. The research presented in this paper takes the scenario one step further by incorporating free-form deformation techniques and sensitivity analysis into the virtual world such that the designer can easily implement analysis-based shape design of a structural system where stress considerations are important. NURBS-based free-form deformation (NFFD) methods and direct manipulation techniques are used as the interface between the VR interaction and the finite element model. Sensitivity analysis is used to allow the designer to change the design model and immediately view the effects without performing a re-analysis. An engine connecting rod is analyzed to demonstrate how virtual reality techniques can be applied to structural shape design.

1.
Arora
J. S.
, and
Haug
E. J.
,
1979
, “
Methods of Design Sensitivity Analysis in Structural Optimization
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
17
, No.
9
, pp.
970
974
.
2.
Aukstakalnis, S., and Blatner, D., 1992, Silicon Mirage: The Art and Science of Virtual Reality, Peachpit Press, Berkeley.
3.
Belegundu
A. D.
, and
Rajan
S. D.
,
1988
, “
A Shape Optimization Approach Based on Natural Design Variables and Shape Functions
,”
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
, Vol.
66
, No.
1
, pp.
87
106
.
4.
Chen, S. S., and Tortorelli, D. A., 1996, “Three-Dimensional Shape Optimization With Variational Geometry,” 6th Annual AIAA/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Bellevue, WA, pp. 99–113.
5.
Choi
K. K.
, and
Chang
K. H.
,
1994
, “
A Study of Design Velocity Field Computation for Shape Optimal Design
,”
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design
, Vol.
15
, pp.
317
341
.
6.
Griessmair, J., and Purgathofer, W., 1989, “Deformation of Solids with Trivariate B-Splines,” Proceeding of Eurographics 89, Elsevier Science Publishers, North-Holland, pp. 137–148.
7.
Gupta, R., 1996, “Survey on Use of Virtual Environments in Design and Manufacturing,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference and Computers in Engineering Conference, Aug. 18–22, 1996, Irvine, CA.
8.
Haug, E. J., Choi, K. K., and Komkov, V., 1986, Design Sensitivity Analysis of Structural Systems, Academic Press, New York.
9.
Hardee, E., Chang, K. H., Choi, K. K., Yu, X., and Grindeanu, I., 1996, “A CAD-Based Design Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization for Structural Shape Design Applications,” 6th Annual AIAA/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Bellevue, WA, pp. 77–87.
10.
Hsu
W. M.
,
Hughes
J. F.
, and
Kaufman
H.
,
1992
, “
Direct Manipulation of Free-Form Deformations
,”
Computer Graphics
, Vol.
26
, No.
2
, pp.
177
184
.
11.
Kodiyalam
S.
,
Kumar
V.
, and
Finnigan
P. M.
,
1992
, “
Constructive Solid Geometry Approach to Three-Dimensional Structural Shape Optimization
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
30
, No.
5
, pp.
1408
1415
.
12.
Lamousin
H. J.
, and
Waggenspack
W. N.
,
1994
, “
NURBS-Based Free-Form Deformations
,”
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, Vol.
14
, No.
6
, pp.
59
65
.
13.
Lasser
D.
,
1995
, “
Rational Tensor Product Be´zier Volumes
,”
Computer Math. Applic.
, Vol.
29
, No.
8
, pp.
95
108
.
14.
Mikaili
A.
, and
Bernard
J. E.
,
1992
, “
Structural Redesign Using Nearly Zero Section Reinforcements
,”
Journal of Finite Elements in Analysis and Design
, Vol.
11
, No.
3
, pp.
221
233
.
15.
MSC/NASTRAN User’s Manual Version 68, 1991, The MacNeal Schwendler Corporation, Los Angeles, CA.
16.
Piegl, L., and Tiller, W., 1995, The NURBS Book, Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 68.
17.
Sederberg
T. W.
, and
Parry
S. R.
,
1986
, “
Free-Form Deformation of Solid Geometric Models
,”
Computer Graphics
, Vol.
20
, No.
4
, pp.
151
160
.
18.
Tits, A. L., Lawrence, C., and Zhou, J. L., 1996, “User’s Guide for CFSQP Version 2.4; A C Code for Solving (Large Scale) Constrained Nonlinear (Mini-max) Optimization Problems, Generating Iterates Satisfying All Inequality Constraints,” Electrical Engineering Department, Institute for System Research TR-94-16rl, University of Maryland, College Park.
19.
Vance, J. M., 1996, “Virtual Reality: What Potential Does It Hold for Engineering?”, Current Advances in Mechanical Design and Production, Sixth Cairo University International MDP Conference, Cairo, Jan. 2–4, 1996, Elsevier Science, New York, N.Y., pp. 333–348.
20.
WorldToolKit Reference Manual, Release 6, 1996, Sense8 Corporation, Sausalito, CA.
21.
Yao
T. M.
, and
Choi
K. K.
,
1989
, “
3D Shape Optimal Design and Automatic Finite Element Regridding
,”
International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering
, Vol.
28
, No.
2
, pp.
369
384
.
22.
Yeh, T. P., and Vance, J. M., 1995, “Interactive Design of Structural Systems in a Virtual Environment,” Proceedings of 24th Midwest Mechanics Conference, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. pp. 185–187.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.