A model is presented taking into account off line-of-action, non-linear wheel stiffness by using the finite element method, and elasticity coupling between the gear teeth. The contact points are determined by searching the common normal using the undeformed, but otherwise true theoretical, tooth shapes where the teeth have a tip rounding to prevent contact singularity in off line-of-action points. A comparative study is included, which shows the important influence of the elastic coupling and off line-of-action.

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