This paper is concerned with the effects of actuation schemes on three measures of kinematic performance which depend upon a manipulator’s Jacobian matrix (namely, the minimum singular value, the manipulability, and the condition number). We begin by presenting a simple framework on how to incorporate actuator location and drive mechanisms in the kinematic model. Then, we redefine the performance measures using the new model. For each measure we derive properties relating its joint space to its actuator space description. Next we demonstrate that the choice of actuation scheme influences the size, shape, and direction of the velocity ellipsoid of the end-effector. Finally, we employ the above concepts in the design of a 2R planar mechanical arm. Its transmission ratios and drive mechanisms are selected in order to obtain good kinematic characteristics. We show that the choice of actuation scheme can be used to improve kinematic performance.

1.
Angeles
J.
,
1992
, “
The Design of Isotropic Manipulator Architectures in the Presence of Redundancies
,”
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol.
11
, No.
3
, pp.
196
201
.
2.
Angeles, J., 1995, “Kinematic Isotropy in Humans and Machines,” Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Vol. 1, Milano, Italy, pp. XLII–IL.
3.
Baillieul, J., 1987, “A Constant Oriented Approach to Inverse Problems for Kinematically Redundant Manipulators,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1827–1833.
4.
Ghosal
A.
, and
Roth
B.
,
1987
, “
Instantaneous Properties of Multi-Degrees-Of-Freedom Motions: Point Trajectories
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS, TRANSMISSIONS, AND AUTOMATION IN DESIGN
, Vol.
109
, pp.
107
115
.
5.
Horn, R. A., and Johnson, C. R., 1991, Topics in Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press.
6.
Kircanski, M. V., 1994, “Robotic Isotropy and Optimal Robot Design of Planar Manipulators,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Diego, USA, pp. 1100–1105.
7.
Klein
C. A.
, and
Blaho
B. E.
,
1987
, “
Dexterity Measures for the Design and Control of Kinematically Redundant Manipulators
,”
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol.
6
, No.
2
, pp.
72
83
.
8.
Liegois
A.
,
1977
, “
Automatic Supervisory Control for the Configuration and Behavior of Multibody Mechanisms
,”
IEEE Trans. of System, Man, Cybernatics
,
SMC-7 (12)
, pp.
842
868
.
9.
Matone, R., 1997, “The Effects of Actuation Schemes on the Performance of Manipulators,” PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford U., Stanford, CA.
10.
Salisbury
J. K.
, and
Craig
J. J.
,
1982
, “
Articulated Hands: Force Control and Kinematic Issues
,”
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol.
1
, No.
1
, pp.
4
17
.
11.
Strang, G., 1980, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Acad. Press.
12.
Sutherland
G. H.
, and
Roth
B.
,
1973
, “
A Transmission Index for Spatial Mechanisms
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry
, Vol.
95
, No.
2
, pp.
589
597
.
13.
Yoshikawa
T.
,
1985
, “
Manipulability of Robotic Mechanisms
,”
International Journal of Robotic Research
, Vol.
4
, No.
2
, pp.
3
9
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.