This research introduces a computational algorithm that uses simulated annealing to optimize three-dimensional component layouts. General component layout problems are characterized by three objectives: achieving high packing density, fitting components into a given container and satisfying spatial constraints on components. This paper focuses on the extension of a simulated annealing packing algorithm to a general layout algorithm through the implementation of a language of spatial constraints that are characteristic of layout problems. These constraints allow the designer to specify desired component proximities or to restrict translation or rotation of components based on a global origin or set of coordinate axes, or relative to other component locations or orientations. The layout of components from a cordless power drill illustrates the algorithm.

1.
Cagan, J., Clark, R., Dastidar, P., Szykman, S., and Weisser, P., 1996, “HVAC CAD Layout Tools: A Case Study of University/Industry Collaboration,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference and Computers in Engineering Conference: Design Theory and Methodology Conference, 96-DETC/DTM-1505, Irvine, CA, August 19–22.
2.
Coffman, E. G., Jr., Garey, M. R., and Johnson, D. S., 1984, “Approximation Algorithms for Bin-Packing—An Updated Survey,” Algorithm Design for Computer System Design, G. Ausiello, M. Lucertini and P. Serafini, eds., Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 49–106.
3.
Cohn
J. M.
,
Garrod
D. J.
,
Rutenbar
R. A.
, and
Carley
L. R.
,
1991
, “
KOAN/ANGRAM II: New Tools for Device-Level Analog Placement and Routing
,”
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
, Vol.
23
, pp.
330
342
.
4.
Dowsland
K. A.
, and
Dowsland
W. B.
,
1992
, “
Packing Problems
,”
European Journal of Operational Research
, Vol.
56
, pp.
2
14
.
5.
Dyckhoff
H.
,
1990
, “
A Typology of Cutting and Packing Problems
,”
European Journal of Operational Research
, Vol.
44
, pp.
145
159
.
6.
Flemming, U., Baykan, C. A., Coyne, R. F., and Fox, M. S., 1992, “Hierarchical Generate-and-Test vs. Constraint-Directed Search,” Artificial Intelligence in Design ’92, J. S. Gero, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 817–838.
7.
Fujita, K., Akagi, S., and Hase, H., 1991, “Hybrid Approach to Plant Layout Design Using Constraint-Directed Search and an Optimization Technique,” Advances in Design Automation 1991: Proceedings of the 17th ASME Design Automation Conference, Vol. 1, Miami, FL, September 22-25, pp. 131–138.
8.
Huang, M. D., Romeo, F., and Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A., 1986, “An Efficient General Cooling Schedule for Simulated Annealing,” ICCAD-86: IEEE International Conference on Computer-Aided Design—Digest of Technical Papers, Santa Clara, CA, November 11–13, pp. 381–384.
9.
Hustin, S., and Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A., 1987, “TIM, a New Standard Cell Placement Program Based on the Simulated Annealing Algorithm,” IEEE Physical Design Workshop on Placement and Floorplanning, Hilton Head, SC, April.
10.
Jepsen, D. W., and Gelatt, C. D., Jr., 1983, “Macro Placement by Monte Carlo Annealing,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Design, November, pp. 495–498.
11.
Kim
J. J.
, and
Gossard
D. C.
,
1991
, “
Reasoning on the Location of Components for Assembly Packaging
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
113
, No.
4
, pp.
402
407
.
12.
Kirkpatrick
S.
,
Gelatt
C. D.
, and
Vecchi
M. P.
,
1983
, “
Optimization by Simulated Annealing
,”
Science
, Vol.
220
, No.
4598
, pp.
671
679
.
13.
Kolli, A., Cagan, J., and Rutenbar, R. A., 1996, “Packing of Generic, Three Dimensional Components Based on Multi-Resolution Modeling,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference and Computers in Engineering Conference: Design Automation Conference, 96-DETC/DAC-1479, Irvine, CA, August 19–22.
14.
Landon
M. D.
, and
Balling
R. J.
,
1994
, “
Optimal Packaging of Complex Parametric Solids According to Mass Property Criteria
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
116
, pp.
375
381
.
15.
Sandgren, E., and Dworak, T., 1988, “Part Layout Optimization Using a Quadtree Representation,” Advances in Design Automation 1988: Proceedings of the 14th ASME Design Automation Conference, Kissimmee, FL, September 25–28, pp. 211–219.
16.
Sechen
C.
, and
Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
A.
,
1985
, “
The TimberWolf Placement and Routing Package
,”
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
, Vol.
20
, No.
2
, pp.
510
522
.
17.
Szykman, S., 1995, “Optimal Product Layout Using Simulated Annealing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.
18.
Szykman
S.
, and
Cagan
J.
,
1995
, “
A Simulated Annealing-Based Approach to Three-Dimensional Component Packing
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
117
, No.
2(A)
, pp.
308
314
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.