This paper deals with the synthesis of mechanical transmission structures for tendon-driven manipulators. Based on static force analysis, necessary conditions are developed for the synthesis of tendon-driven manipulators with isotropic transmission characteristics. It is shown that an n degree-of-freedom (dof) manipulator will possess the isotropic transmission characteristics, if it satisfies two isotropic conditions. Furthermore, a design equation is derived for the construction of isotropic transmission structure matrices and a three-dof spatial manipulator is synthesized to demonstrate the methodology. It is shown that the isotropic design leads to a more uniform tendon force distribution.

1.
Albus
J.
,
Bostelman
R.
, and
Dagalakis
N.
,
1992
, “
The NIST Spider, A Robot Crane
,”
Journal of Research of the NIST
, Vol.
97
, No.
3
, pp.
373
385
.
2.
Asada, H., and Cro Granito, J. A., 1985, “Kinematic and Static Characterization of Wrist Joints and Their Optimal Design,” Proc. of IEEE 1985 Int’l Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 244–250.
3.
Ben-Israel, A., and Greville, T. N. E., 1974, Generalized Inverses: Theory and Applications, Wiley, New York, N. Y.
4.
Chen
D. Z.
, and
Tsai
L. W.
,
1993
, “
Kinematic and Dynamic Synthesis of Geared Robotic Mechanisms
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
115
, No.
2
, pp.
241
246
.
5.
Coxeter, H. S. M., 1973, Regular Polytopes, 3rd ed., Dover Publications, New York, N. Y.
6.
Craig, J. J., 1986, Introduction to Robotics, Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass.
7.
Golub, G. H., and Van Loan, C. F., 1989, Matrix Computations, 2nd ed., The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
8.
Gosselin
C.
, and
Angeles
J.
,
1988
, “
A New Performance Index for the Kinematic Optimization of Robotic Manipulators
,”
ASME Trends and Developments in Mechanisms, Machines and Robotics
, DE-Vol.
15–3
, pp.
441
447
.
9.
Hirose
S.
, and
Umetani
Y.
,
1978
, “
The Development of Soft Gripper for the Versatile Robot Hand
,”
Mechanism and Machine Theory
, Vol.
13
, pp.
351
359
.
10.
Hirose, S., and Umetani, Y., 1979, “The Kinematics and Control of a Soft Gripper for the Handling of Living or Fragile Objects,” Proc. of the Fifth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, pp. 1175–1178.
11.
Hirose, S., and Shugen, M., 1991, “Coupled Tendon-Driven Multijoint Manipulator,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, pp. 1268–1275.
12.
Jacobsen
S. C.
,
Wood
J. E.
,
Knutti
D. F.
, and
Biggers
K. B.
,
1984
, “
The Utah/MIT Dexterous Hand: Work in Progress
,”
The Int’l J. of Robotics Research
, Vol.
3
, No.
4
, pp.
21
50
.
13.
Jacobsen, S. C., Iversen, E. K., Knutti, D. F., Johnson, R. T., and Biggers, K. B., 1986, “The Design of the Utah/MIT Dextrous Hand,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1520–1532.
14.
Lee
J. J.
, and
Tsai
L. W.
,
1989
, “
Kinematic Analysis of Tendon-Driven Robotic Mechanisms Using Graph Theory
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS, TRANSMISSIONS, AND AUTOMATION IN DESIGN
, Vol.
111
, No.
1
, pp.
59
65
.
15.
Lee, J. J., and Tsai, L. W., 1991, “Topological Analysis of Tendon-Driven Manipulators,” 8th World Congress on Int’l Federation of the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Czechoslovakia, pp. 479–482.
16.
Morecki, A., Busko, Z., Gasztold, H., and Jaworek, K., 1980, “Synthesis and Control of the Anthropomorphic Two-Handed Manipulator,” Proc. 10th Int’l Symposium on Industrial Robots, Milan, Italy, pp. 461–474.
17.
Ou
Y. J.
, and
Tsai
L. W.
,
1993
, “
Kinematic Synthesis of Tendon-Driven Manipulators with Isotropic Transmission Characteristics
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
115
, No.
4
, pp.
884
891
.
18.
Salisbury, J. K., 1982, “Kinematic and Force Analysis of Articulated Hands,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mech. Eng. Dept., Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
19.
Salisbury
J. K.
, and
Craig
J. J.
,
1982
, “
Articulated Hands: Force Control and Kinematic Issues
,”
The Int’l J. of Robotics Research
, Vol.
1
, No.
1
, pp.
4
17
.
20.
Salisbury, J. K., 1987, “Whole-Arm Manipulation,” Proc. 4th Intl. Symposium on Robotics Research, Santa Cruz, CA.
21.
Salisbury, J. K., Townsend, W., Eberman, B., and Dipietro, D., 1988, “Preliminary Design of A Whole-Arm Manipulation System (WAMS),” Proc. of IEEE Int’l Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 1, pp. 254–260.
22.
Strang, G., 1980, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York, N. Y.
23.
Townsend, W. T., and Salisbury, J. K., 1991, “Mechanical Bandwidth as a Guideline to High-Performance Manipulator Design,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 1390–1395.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.