The need to limit system vibrations makes the dynamic behavior of flexible highspeed cam-follower systems (as well as other machines subject to periodic motion) an important topic in the design of any such system. Researchers have worked extensively on this subject since before the turn of the century, both to determine dynamic behavior, and to improve and control that behavior. The goals in these analyses are to: 1) predict when and if the follower jumps off the cam; 2) determine the cam contact forces; 3) determine the linkage forces; 4) establish the closing spring requirements; 5) determine the magnitude of any follower impact with its seat; and 6) help optimize the system’s dynamic response. This paper provides the following: a brief review of the literature on the dynamic analysis of flexible cam-follower systems; a recommended method for the analysis of such systems; and an extension of this analysis method to multi-input systems.

1.
Dresner, T. L., 1988, “Multi-Input Cam-Actuated Mechanisms and Their Application to IC Engine Variable Valve Timing,” PhD Thesis, Stanford University.
2.
Akiba, K., Shimizu, A., and Sakai, H., 1981, “A Comprehensive Simulation of High Speed Driven Valve Trains,” SAE Paper 810865.
3.
Bahgat, B. M., and Osman, M. O. M., 1986, “On the Prevention of Separation in High Speed Flexible Cam Mechanisms,” Current Advances in Mechanical Design and Production III, Proceedings of the Third Cairo University MDP Conference, New York, Pergamon Press, pp. 93–100.
4.
Barkan
P.
,
1953
, “
Calculation of High-Speed Valve Motion With a Flexible Overhead Linkage
,”
SAE Transactions
, Vol.
61
, pp.
687
700
.
5.
Kanzaki
K.
, and
Itao
K.
,
1971
, “
Polydyne Cam Mechanisms for Type head Positioning
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry
, Vol.
94
, pp
250
254
.
6.
Pisano
A. P.
, and
Freudenstein
F.
,
1983
, “
An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Dynamic Response of a High-Speed Cam-Follower System. Part 2: A Combined, Lumped/Distributed Parameter Dynamic Model
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS, TRANSMISSIONS, AND AUTOMATION IN DESIGN
, Vol.
105
, pp.
699
704
.
7.
Pisano
A. P.
,
1984
, “
Coulomb Friction in High-Speed Cam Systems
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS, TRANSMISSIONS, AND AUTOMATION IN DESIGN
, Vol.
106
, pp.
470
474
.
8.
Pisano, A. P., and Chen, H. T., 1985, “Coulomb Friction and Optimal Rocker Arm Ratio for High-Speed Cam Systems,” ASME Paper 85-DET-61.
9.
Raghavacharyulu
E.
, and
Sachdeva
B. L.
,
1984
, “
Dynamic Characteristics of Cam-Follower Systems
,”
Journal of Engineering Design
, Vol.
2
, No.
1
, pp.
20
28
.
10.
Wiederrich, J. L., 1973, “Design of Cam Profiles for Systems with High Inertial Loadings,” PhD Thesis, Stanford University.
11.
Wiederrich
J. L.
, and
Roth
B.
,
1975
, “
Dynamic Synthesis of Cams Using Finite Trigonometric Series
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry
, Vol.
97
, Ser.
B
, pp.
287
293
.
12.
Hanachi
S.
, and
Freudenstein
F.
,
1986
, “
The Development of a Predictive Model for the Optimization of High-Speed Cam-Follower Systems with Coulomb Damping, Internal Friction and Elastic and Fluidic Elements
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS, TRANSMISSIONS, AND AUTOMATION IN DESIGN
, Vol.
108
, pp.
506
515
.
13.
Chen, F. Y, 1973, “Analysis and Design of Cam-Driven Mechanisms With Nonlinearities,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, pp. 685–694.
14.
Koster, M. P., 1975, “Digital Simulation of the Dynamics of Cam Followeres and Camshafts,” I. Mech. Eng., pp. 969–974.
15.
Kreuter, P., and Pischinger, F., 1985, “Valve Train Calculation Model with Regard to Oil Film Effects,” SAE Paper 850399.
16.
Sakai
H.
, and
Kosaki
H.
,
1976
, “
Analysis of Valve Motion in Overhead Valve Linkages—Roles of Valve Spring Surge in Valve Motion
,”
Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo(B)
, Vol.
33
, No.
4
, pp.
441
446
.
17.
Wiederrich
J. L.
,
1981
, “
Residual Vibration Criteria Applied to Multiple Degree of Freedom Cam Followers
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
103
, pp.
702
705
.
18.
Chen, F. Y., and Polvanich, N., 1974, “Dynamics of High-Speed Cam-Driven Mechanisms. Part 2: Nonlinear System Models,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, pp. 769–784.
19.
Mendez-Adriani, J. A., 1983, “Variation of the Range of Jump Phenomenon with the Harmonic Cam Follower Stiffness,” ASME paper 83-DET-5.
20.
Mendez-Adriani, J. A., 1985, “Design of a General Cam-Follower Mechanical System Independent of the Effect of Jump Resonance,” ASME Paper 85-DET-56.
21.
Midha
J.
, and
Turcic
D. A.
,
1980
, “
On the Periodic Response of Cam Mechanism With Flexible Follower and Camshaft
,”
ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control
, Vol.
102
, pp.
255
264
.
22.
Dresner, T. L., and Barkan, P., 1989, “The Application of a Two-Input Cam-Actuated Mechanism to Variable Valve Timing,” SAE Paper 890676.
23.
Benedict
C. E.
,
1978
, “
Model Formulation of Complex Mechanisms With Multiple Inputs; Part 1—Geometry
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
100
, pp.
747
754
.
24.
Benedict
C. E.
,
1978
, “
Model Formulation of Complex Mechanisms With Multiple Inputs; Part 2—The Dynamic Model
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
, Vol.
100
, No.
4
, pp.
755
761
.
25.
Boronkay
T. G.
,
1970
, “
Analysis and Design of Multiple Input Flexible Link Mechanisms
,”
Journal of Mechanisms
, (Changed to Mechanisms & Machine Theory), Vol.
5
, No.
1
, pp.
29
40
.
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