In this work, 316L stainless steel samples were coated with copper (Cu) and German silver (Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn) to investigate the relation between their mechanical and antibacterial behaviors. The mechanical and material characteristics of the samples were studied by looking into the microstructure of the surface and the cross-section of the coatings, the surface roughness, and the adhesion strength between the coating layer and the substrate. The antibacterial behavior is then studied against gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Two experiments were conducted to examine the antibacterial behavior. In the first experiment, the coated samples were covered with distilled water, whereas in the second experiment, the samples were tested without being covered with distilled water. The results show that German silver (Cu 17%Ni 10%Zn) had a higher antibacterial rate than copper (Cu) by around 10% for both gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus. The reason is because a smoother surface is expected to limit the bacterial adhesion in most cases, and the German silver samples have a lower surface roughness (Ra) due to the higher thermal expansion value of zinc (Zn) compared with copper (Cu). A more in-depth look into the effect of various thickness of the coating with alloying elements (in this case nickel and zinc) on the antibacterial rate would be of great interest.

References

References
1.
Cloutier
,
M.
,
Mantovani
,
D.
, and
Rosei
,
F.
,
2015
, “
Antibacterial Coatings: Challenges, Perspectives, and Opportunities
,”
Trends Biotechnol.
,
33
(
11
), pp.
637
652
.
2.
Lichter
,
J. A.
,
Van Vliet
,
K. J.
, and
Rubner
,
M. F.
,
2009
, “
Design of Antibacterial Surfaces and Interfaces: Polyelectrolyte Multilayers as a Multifunctional Platform
,”
Macromolecules
,
42
(
22
), pp.
8573
8586
.
3.
Sharifahmadian
,
O.
,
Salimijazi
,
H. R.
,
Fathi
,
M. H.
,
Mostaghimi
,
J.
, and
Pershin
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Relationship Between Surface Properties and Antibacterial Behavior of Wire Arc Spray Copper Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Tech.
,
233
, pp.
74
79
.
4.
Wu
,
W. T.
,
Zhao
,
W. J.
,
Wu
,
Y. H.
,
Zhou
,
C. X.
,
Li
,
L. Y.
,
Liu
,
Z. X.
,
Dong
,
J. D.
, and
Zhou
,
K. H.
,
2019
, “
Antibacterial Behaviors of Cu2O Particles With Controllable Morphologies in Acrylic Coatings
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
465
, pp.
279
287
.
5.
da Silva
,
F. S.
,
Cinca
,
N.
,
Dosta
,
S.
,
Cano
,
I. G.
,
Guilemany
,
J. M.
,
Caires
,
C. S. A.
,
Lima
,
A. R.
,
Silva
,
C. M.
,
Oliveira
,
S. L.
,
Caires
,
A. R. L.
, and
Benedetti
,
A. V.
,
2019
, “
Corrosion Resistance and Antibacterial Properties of Copper Coating Deposited by Cold Gas Spray
,”
Surf. Coat. Tech.
,
361
, pp.
292
301
.
6.
Meghana
,
S.
,
Kabra
,
P.
,
Chakraborty
,
S.
, and
Padmavathy
,
N.
,
2015
, “
Understanding the Pathway of Antibacterial Activity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles
,”
RSC Adv.
,
5
, pp.
12293
12299
.
7.
Sunada
,
K.
,
Minoshima
,
M.
, and
Hashimoto
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Highly Efficient Antiviral and Antibacterial Activities of Solid-State Cuprous Compounds
,”
J. Hazard Mater.
,
235–236
, pp.
265
270
.
8.
Kang
,
Y.
,
Park
,
J.
,
Kim
,
D. W.
,
Kim
,
H.
, and
Kang
,
Y. C.
,
2016
, “
Controlling the Antibacterial Activity of CuSn Thin Films by Varying the Contents of Sn
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
389
, pp.
1012
1016
.
9.
Ferraris
,
M.
,
Perero
,
S.
,
Ferraris
,
S.
,
Miola
,
M.
,
Verne
,
E.
,
Skoglund
,
S.
,
Blomberg
,
E.
, and
Wallinder
,
I. O.
,
2017
, “
Antibacterial Silver Nanocluster/Silica Composite Coatings on Stainless Steel
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
396
, pp.
1546
1555
.
10.
Hidalgo-Robatto
,
B. M.
,
Lopez-Alvarez
,
M.
,
Azevedo
,
A. S.
,
Dorado
,
J.
,
Serra
,
J.
,
Azevedo
,
N. F.
, and
Gonzalez
,
P.
,
2018
, “
Pulsed Laser Deposition of Copper and Zinc Doped Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications
,”
Surf. Coat. Tech.
,
333
, pp.
168
177
.
11.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Guo
,
J. Q.
,
Yan
,
T.
, and
Han
,
Y.
,
2018
, “
Fibroblast Responses and Antibacterial Activity of Cu and Zn co-Doped TiO2 for Percutaneous Implants
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
434
, pp.
633
642
.
You do not currently have access to this content.