Electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) is a powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) technology that can make full density metallic components using a layer-by-layer fabrication method. To build each layer, the EBAM process includes powder spreading, preheating, melting, and solidification. The quality of the build part, process reliability, and energy efficiency depends typically on the thermal behavior, material properties, and heat source parameters involved in the EBAM process. Therefore, characterizing those properties and understanding the correlations among the process parameters are essential to evaluate the performance of the EBAM process. In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with Ti-6Al-4V powder was developed incorporating the temperature-dependent thermal properties and a moving conical volumetric heat source with Gaussian distribution to conduct the simulations of the EBAM process. The melt pool dynamics and its thermal behavior were investigated numerically, and results for temperature profile, melt pool geometry, cooling rate and variation in density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and enthalpy were obtained for several sets of electron beam specifications. Validation of the model was performed by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results for the size of the melt pool.

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