Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect is the outstanding mechanism of austenitic stainless steel. It plays an important role in increasing formability of the steel due to higher local strain hardening during deformation. In order to better understand forming behavior of this steel grade, the strain-induced martensitic transformation of the 304 stainless steel was investigated. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed at different temperatures for the steel up to varying strain levels. Stress–strain curves and work hardening rates with typical TRIP effect characteristics were obtained. Metallographic observations in combination with X-ray diffraction method were employed for determining microstructure evolution. Higher volume fraction of martensite was found by increasing deformation level and decreasing forming temperature. Subsequently, micromechanics models based on the Mecking–Kocks approach and Gladman-type mixture law were applied to predict amount of transformed martensite and overall flow stress curves. Hereby, individual constituents of the steel and their developments were taken into account. Additionally, finite element (FE) simulations of two representative volume element (RVE) models were conducted, in which effective stress–strain responses and local stress and strain distributions in the microstructures were described under consideration of the TRIP effect. It was found that flow stress curves calculated by the mixture law and RVE simulations fairly agreed with the experimental results. The RVE models with different morphologies of martensite provided similar effective stress–strain behavior, but unlike local stress and strain distributions, which could in turn affect the strain-induced martensitic transformation.

References

References
1.
Tamura
,
I.
,
1982
, “
Deformation-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Transformation-Induced Plasticity in Steels
,”
Metal Sci.
,
16
(
5
), pp.
245
253
.
2.
Perdahcioglu
,
E. S.
,
Geijselaers
,
H. J. M.
, and
Huetink
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Constitutive Modeling of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel
,”
11th Conference on Material Forming
(
ESAFORM
), Lyon, France, Apr. 23–25.
3.
Nemes
,
J. A.
, and
Sierra
,
R.
,
2008
, “
Investigation of the Mechanical Behaviour of Multi-Phase TRIP Steels Using Finite Element Methods
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
50
(
4
), pp.
649
665
.
4.
Delannay
,
L.
,
Jacques
,
P.
, and
Pardoen
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Modelling of the Plastic Flow of Trip-Aided Multiphase Steel Based on an Incremental Mean-Field Approach
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
45
(
6
), pp.
1825
1843
.
5.
Fischer
,
F. D.
,
Reisner
,
G.
,
Werner
,
E.
,
Tanaka
,
K.
,
Cailletaud
,
G.
, and
Antretter
,
T.
,
2000
, “
New View on Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP)
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
16
(
7
), pp.
723
748
.
6.
Graessel
,
O.
,
Krueger
,
L.
,
Frommeyer
,
G.
, and
Meyer
,
L. W.
,
2000
, “
High Strength Fe–Mn–(Al, Si) TRIP/TWIP Steels Development Properties Application
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
16
(
10–11
), pp.
1391
1409
.
7.
Olsen
,
G. B.
, and
Cohen
,
M.
,
1975
, “
Kinetics of Strain-Induced Martensitic Nucleation
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
6
(
4
), pp.
791
795
.
8.
Olsen
,
G. B.
, and
Cohen
,
M.
,
1976
, “
A General Mechanism of Martensite Nucleation—Parts III: Kinetics or Martensite Nucleation
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
7
(
12
), pp.
1915
1923
.
9.
Lee
,
W. S.
, and
Lin
,
C. F.
,
2000
, “
The Morphologies and Characteristics of Impact-Induced Martensite in 304L Stainless Steel
,”
Scr. Mater.
,
43
(
8
), pp.
777
782
.
10.
Talonen
,
J.
,
Nenonen
,
P.
,
Pape
,
G.
, and
Hanninen
,
H.
,
2005
, “
Effect of Strain Rate on the Strain-Induced Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
36
(
2
), pp.
421
432
.
11.
Huang
,
G. L.
,
Matlock
,
D. K.
, and
Krauss
,
G.
,
1989
, “
Martensite Formation, Strain Rate Sensitivity, and Deformation Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel Sheet
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
20
(
7
), pp.
1239
1246
.
12.
Bouquerel
,
J.
,
Verbeken
,
K.
, and
De Cooman
,
B. C.
,
2006
, “
Microstructure-Based Model for the Static Mechanical Behaviour of Multiphase Steels
,”
Acta Mater.
,
54
(
6
), pp.
1443
1456
.
13.
Uthaisangsuk
,
V.
,
Prahl
,
U.
, and
Bleck
,
W.
,
2008
, “
Micromechanical Modeling of Damage Behavior of Multiphase Steels
,”
Comp. Mater. Sci.
,
43
(
1
), pp.
27
35
.
14.
Prahl
,
U.
,
Ramazani
,
A.
,
Quade
,
H.
, and
Twardowski
,
R.
,
2012
, “
Damage Modeling of Multiphase Steels Using Microstructure Based RVE Technique
,” Forming Technology Forum, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, pp.
17
22
.
15.
Sodjit
,
S.
, and
Uthaisangsuk
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Microstructure Based Prediction of Strain Hardening Behavior of Dual Phase Steels
,”
Mater. Des.
,
41
, pp.
370
379
.
16.
Matsumura
,
O.
,
Sakuma
,
Y.
, and
Takechi
,
H.
,
1987
, “
TRIP and Its Kinetic Aspects in Austenite Tempered 0.4C–1.5Si–0.8Mn Steel
,”
Scr. Metall.
,
21
(
10
), pp.
1301
1306
.
17.
Tsuchida
,
N.
,
Morimoto
,
Y.
,
Tonan
,
T.
,
Shibata
,
Y.
,
Fukaura
,
K.
, and
Ueji
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Stress-Induced Martensitic Transformation Behaviors at Various Temperatures and Their TRIP Effects in SUS304 Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel
,”
ISIJ Int.
,
51
(
1
), pp.
124
129
.
18.
Small
,
K. B.
,
Englehart
,
D. A.
, and
Christman
,
T. A.
,
2008
, “
A Guide to Etching Specialty Alloys for Microstructural Evaluation
,”
Carpenter Technology
, Wyomissing, PA.
19.
Connolly
,
J. R.
,
2010
,
Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction
,
The University of New Mexico
,
Albuquerque, NM
.
20.
Kocks
,
U. F.
,
1976
, “
Law for Work Hardening and Low-Temperature Creep
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
98
(
1
), pp.
76
85
.
21.
Mecking
,
H.
, and
Kocks
,
U. F.
,
1981
, “
Kinetics of Flow and Strain-Hardening
,”
Acta Metall.
,
29
(
11
), pp.
1865
1875
.
22.
Estrin
,
Y.
, and
Mecking
,
H.
,
1984
, “
A Unified Phenomenological Description of Work Hardening and Creep Based on One-Parameter Models
,”
Acta Metall.
,
32
(
1
), pp.
57
70
.
23.
Rodríguez
,
R.
, and
Gutierrez
,
I.
,
2003
, “
Unified Formulation to Predict the Tensile Curves of Steels With Different Microstructures
,”
International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials
(
THERMEC
), Madrid, Spain, July 7–11, pp.
426
432
.
24.
Anand
,
G.
,
Datta
,
S.
, and
Chattopadhyay
,
P. P.
,
2013
, “
Deterministic Approach for Microstructurally Engineered Formable Steels
,”
Int. J. Metall. Eng.
,
2
(
1
), pp.
69
78
.
You do not currently have access to this content.