As an important surface treatment method, shot peening (SP) can improve the surface properties effectively. In this work, after multiple SP treatments, the uniformity of the residual stress distribution and the domain size distribution on the surface of Ti–6Al–4 V have been investigated via an X-ray diffraction method. Compared with traditional SP treatments, the multiple SP can increase the surface residual stresses and make the stress distribution more uniform. In terms of the domain size, the multiple SP treatments mainly influence its uniform distribution, and there is no obvious effect to the values, which is due to the saturation status of SP process. In addition, the effects of multiple SP on the surface roughness and hardness have been studied. The results show that the multiple SP can reduce the surface roughness and increase the hardness in a certain extent comparing with the effect of traditional SP, which are ascribed to the smaller shot balls and the more homogeneous deformation during the process of multiple SP. Therefore, an appropriate multiple SP can improve the surface properties of Ti–6Al–4 V effectively.

References

References
1.
Mosher
,
D. A.
, and
Dawson
,
P. R.
,
1996
, “
A State Variable Constitutive Model for Superplastic Ti-6Al-4V Based on Grain Size
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
118
(
2
), pp.
162
168
.
2.
Patankar
,
S. N.
, and
Tan
,
M. J.
,
2001
, “
Influence of Alpha Casing on Superplastic Deformation of Ti-6Al-4V
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
123
(
1
), pp.
144
147
.
3.
Yang
,
F.
, and
Gao
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Predicting the Peen Forming Effectiveness of Ti-6Al-4V Strips With Different Thicknesses Using Realistic Finite Element Simulations
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011004
.
4.
Attar
,
H.
,
Prashanth
,
K. G.
,
Chaubey
,
A. K.
,
Calin
,
M.
,
Zhang
,
L. C.
,
Scudino
,
S.
, and
Eckert
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Comparison of Wear Properties of Commercially Pure Titanium Prepared by Selective Laser Melting and Casting Processes
,”
Mater. Lett.
,
142
, pp.
38
41
.
5.
Haghighi
,
S. E.
,
Lu
,
H. B.
,
Jian
,
G. Y.
,
Cao
,
G. H.
,
Habibi
,
D.
, and
Zhang
,
L. C.
,
2015
, “
Effect of α″ Martensite on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Beta-Type Ti-Fe-Ta Alloys
,”
Mater. Des.
,
76
, pp.
47
54
.
6.
Calin
,
M.
,
Zhang
,
L. C.
, and
Eckert
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Tailoring of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass-Forming Alloy
,”
Scr. Mater.
,
57
(
12
), pp.
1101
1104
.
7.
Molzen
,
M.
, and
Hornbach
,
D.
,
2000
, “
Evaluation of Welding Residual Stress Levels Through Shot Peening and Heat Treating
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2000-01-2564.
8.
Wagner
,
L.
,
1999
, “
Mechanical Surface Treatments on Titanium, Aluminum, and Magnesium Alloys
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
263
(
2
), pp.
210
216
.
9.
Tekeli
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Enhancement of Fatigue Strength of SAE 9245 Steel by Shot Peening
,”
Mater. Lett.
,
57
(
3
), pp.
604
608
.
10.
Fridrici
,
V.
,
Fouvry
,
S.
, and
Kapsa
,
P.
,
2001
, “
Effect of Shot Peening on the Fretting Wear of Ti-6Al-4V
,”
Wear
,
250
(
1–2
), pp.
642
649
.
11.
Webster
,
G.
, and
Ezeilo
,
A.
,
2001
, “
Residual Stress Distributions and their Influence on Fatigue Lifetimes
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
23
(
Suppl. 1
), pp.
375
383
.
12.
Almer
,
J.
,
Cohen
,
J.
, and
Moran
,
B.
,
2000
, “
The Effect of Residual Macrostresses and Microstresses on Fatigue Crack Initation
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
284
(
1–2
), pp.
268
279
.
13.
Almer
,
J.
,
Cohen
,
J.
, and
Winholtz
,
R.
,
1998
, “
The Effects of Residual Macrostresses and Microstresses on Fatigue Crack Propagation
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
29
(8), pp.
2127
2136
.
14.
Zhang
,
P.
, and
Lindemann
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Influence of Shot Peening on High Cycle Fatigue Properties of the High-Strength Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ80
,”
Scr. Mater.
,
52
(
6
), pp.
485
490
.
15.
Farrahi
,
G.
,
Lebrun
,
J.
, and
Couratin
,
D.
,
1995
, “
Effect of Shot Peening on Residual Stress and Fatigue Life of a Spring Steel
,”
Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
211
220
.
16.
Farrahi
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Side Effects of Shot Peening on Fatigue Crack Initiation Life
,”
Int. J. Eng. Trans. A: Basics
,
24
(
3
), pp.
275
280
.
17.
Vöhringer
,
O.
,
1987
, “
Changes in the State of the Material by Shot Peening
,”
Third International Conference of Shot Peening
(
ICSP-3
), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Oct. 12–16, pp. 185–204.
18.
Meguid
,
S. A.
,
Shagal
,
G.
, and
Stranart
,
J. C.
,
2007
, “
Development and Validation of Novel fe Models for 3D Analysis of Peening of Strain-Rate Sensitive Materials
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
129
(
2
), pp.
271
283
.
19.
Gariepy
,
A.
,
Bridier
,
F.
,
Hoseini
,
M.
,
Bocher
,
P.
,
Perron
,
C.
, and
Levesque
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Material Heterogeneity in Shot Peened Aluminium Alloy AA2024-T351
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
219
, pp.
15
30
.
20.
Ishigami
,
H.
, and
Matsui
,
K.
,
2000
, “
A Study on Stress, Reflection and Double Shot Peening to Increase Compressive Residual Stress
,”
Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct.
,
23
(
11
), pp.
959
963
.
21.
Luan
,
W.
,
Jiang
,
C.
, and
Ji
,
V.
,
2009
, “
Surface Layer Characteristics of TiB2/Al Composite by Stress Peening
,”
Mater. Trans.
,
50
(
4
), pp.
837
840
.
22.
Xie
,
L.
,
Jiang
,
C.
,
Lu
,
W.
,
Chen
,
Y.
, and
Huang
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Stress Peening on Surface Layer Characteristics of (TiB+TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V Composite
,”
Mater. Des.
,
33
, pp.
64
68
.
23.
Xie
,
L.
,
Jiang
,
C.
,
Lu
,
W.
,
Zhan
,
K.
, and
Chen
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Investigation on the Residual Stress and Microstructure of (TiB+TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V Composite After Shot Peening
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
528
(
9
), pp.
3423
3427
.
24.
Withers
,
P.
, and
Bhadeshia
,
H.
,
2001
, “
Residual Stress Part 1—Measurement Techniques
,”
Mater. Sci. Technol.
,
17
(
4
), pp.
355
365
.
25.
Wang
,
Z.
,
Luan
,
W.
,
Huang
,
J.
, and
Jiang
,
C.
,
2011
, “
XRD Investigation of Microstructure Strengthening Mechanism of Shot Peening on Laser Hardened 17-4PH
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
528
(
21
), pp.
6417
6425
.
26.
Zhang
,
H. W.
,
Hei
,
Z. K.
,
Liu
,
G.
,
Lu
,
J.
, and
Lu
,
K.
,
2003
, “
Formation of Nanostructured Surface Layer on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Means of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment
,”
Acta Mater.
,
51
(
7
), pp.
1871
1881
.
27.
Lin
,
Y.
,
Lu
,
J.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Xu
,
T.
, and
Xue
,
Q.
,
2006
, “
Surface Nanocrystallization by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment and Its Effect on Structure and Properties of Plasma Nitrided AISI 321 Stainless Steel
,”
Acta Mater.
,
54
(
20
), pp.
5599
5605
.
28.
Roland
,
T.
,
Retraint
,
D.
,
Lu
,
K.
, and
Lu
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Fatigue Life Improvement Through Surface Nanostructuring of Stainless Steel by Means of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment
,”
Scr. Mater.
,
54
(
11
), pp.
1949
1954
.
29.
Roland
,
T.
,
Retraint
,
D.
,
Lu
,
K.
, and
Lu
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Enhanced Mechanical Behavior of a Nanocrystallised Stainless Steel and Its Thermal Stability
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
445–446
, pp.
281
288
.
30.
Image Metrology
,
2010
, “The Scanning Probe Image Processor (SPIP) User's and Reference Guide,” Ver. 5.1, Image Metrology A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark.
31.
Xie
,
L.
,
Jiang
,
C.
,
Lu
,
W.
,
Feng
,
Q.
, and
Wu
,
X.
,
2011
, “
Investigation on the Surface Layer Characteristics of Shot Peened Titanium Matrix Composite Utilizing X-ray Diffraction
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
206
(
2–3
), pp.
511
516
.
32.
Liu
,
J. L.
,
Umemoto
,
M.
,
Todaka
,
Y.
, and
Tsuchiya
,
K.
,
2007
, “
Formation of a Nanocrystalline Surface Layer on Steels by Air Blast Shot Peening
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
42
(
18
), pp.
7716
7720
.
You do not currently have access to this content.