Self-propagating exothermic reaction bonding (SERB) technique with Al/Ni multilayer film is fascinating in the viewpoint of lots of outstanding features, such as atmosphere-independent exothermic reaction and its self-propagation. The reactively bonded solder joints with high bonded strength are required for practical use in semiconductor devices. We have investigated the fracture strength of rectangular-solid specimens with reactively bonded solder joint (Sn–3.5Ag solder/reacted NiAl/Sn–3.5Ag solder) sandwiched by single crystal silicon (SCS). In this paper, the influence of bonding atmosphere on the fracture behavior is discussed by means of four-point bending testing and fracture surface observation. The fracture strength increases with increasing pressure load during bonding. The strength of the vacuum-bonded specimens is found to be higher than that of the air-bonded specimens. The fracture surface observation results suggest that Al oxide and intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the reacted NiAl layer and the SnAg solder layer, respectively, would have affected the strength of the Al/Ni SERB joints.

References

References
1.
Sakuyama
,
S.
,
1999
, “
Infrared Reflow Soldering Technology
,”
J. Jpn. Inst. Electron. Packag.
,
2
(
7
), pp.
561
565
(in Japanese).
2.
Rogachev
,
A. S.
,
Vadchenko
,
S. G.
,
Baras
,
F.
,
Politano
,
O.
,
Rouvimov
,
S.
,
Sachkova
,
N. V.
, and
Mukasyan
,
A. S.
,
2014
, “
Structure Evolution and Reaction Mechanism in the Ni/Al Reactive Multilayer Nanofoils
,”
Acta Mater.
,
66
, pp.
86
96
.
3.
Wang
,
J.
,
Besnoin
,
E.
,
Duckham
,
A.
,
Spey
,
S. J.
,
Reiss
,
M. E.
,
Knio
,
O. M.
, and
Weihs
,
T. P.
,
2004
, “
Joining of Stainless-Steel Specimens With Nanostructured Al/Ni Foils
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
95
(
1
), pp.
248
256
.
4.
Wang
,
L.
,
He
,
B.
, and
Jiang
,
X. H.
,
2010
, “
Modeling the Velocity of Self-Propagating Exothermic Reactions in Multilayer Foils
,”
Combust Sci. Technol.
,
182
(
8
), pp.
1000
1008
.
5.
Jayaraman
,
S.
,
Knio
,
O. M.
,
Mann
,
A. B.
, and
Weihs
,
T. P.
,
1999
, “
Numerical Predictions of Oscillatory Combustion in Reactive Multilayers
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
86
(
2
), pp.
800
809
.
6.
Cao
,
J.
,
Song
,
X. G.
,
Wu
,
L. Z.
,
Qi
,
J. L.
, and
Feng
,
J. C.
,
2012
, “
Sputtering Deposition and Characterization of Zirconium Nitride and Oxynitride Films
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
520
(
9
), pp.
3532
3538
.
7.
Namazu
,
T.
,
Takemoto
,
H.
,
Fujita
,
H.
,
Nagai
,
Y.
, and
Inoue
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Self-Propagating Explosive Reactions in Nanostructured Al/Ni Multilayer Films as a Localized Heat Process Technique for MEMS
,” 19th
IEEE
International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
, Istanbul, Turkey, Jan. 22–26, pp.
286
289
.
8.
Fujita
,
H.
,
Namazu
,
T.
, and
Inoue
,
S.
,
2007
, “
MEMS Hermetic Package With Lead-Free Solder Film Line Heated by Al/Ni Exothermic Structure
,”
7th International Conference of Advanced Technology in Experimental Mechanics
, Paper No. OS05-3-1.
9.
Namazu
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Micro/Nano-Materials for MEMS Applications—Al/Ni Exothermic Reactive Film as a Heat Source for MEMS Packaging
,”
16th Annual International Conference on Composites/Nano Engineering (ICCE-16)
, pp.
507
510
.
10.
Ohtani
,
K.
,
Yamano
,
Y.
,
Namazu
,
T.
, and
Inoue
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Strength Evaluation of Lead-Free Solder Joint Fabricated by Exothermic Film Local Heating
,”
15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems
, Denver, CO, June 21–25, pp.
172
175
.
11.
Namazu
,
T.
,
Ohtani
,
K.
,
Yoshiki
,
K.
, and
Inoue
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Crack Propagation Direction Control of Crack-Less Solder Bonding Using AlNi Flash Heating Technique
,”
16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems
, Beijing, June 5–9, pp.
1368
1371
.
12.
Namazu
,
T.
,
Ohtani
,
K.
,
Yoshiki
,
K.
, and
Inoue
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Crack-Less Wafer-Level Packaging Using Flash Heating Technique for Micro Devices
,”
International Conference Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials
, pp.
1979
1983
.
13.
Ito
,
S.
,
Morikaku
,
T.
,
Inoue
,
S.
, and
Namazu
,
T.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Bonded Area Size on Cracking in Reactive Soldering With Al/Ni Multilayer Films
,”
26th International Microprocesses and Nanotechnology Conference
, Paper No. 8P-11-109.
14.
Miyake
,
S.
,
Kanetsuki
,
S.
,
Morino
,
K.
,
Kuroishi
,
J.
, and
Namazu
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Thermal Resistance Analysis of Solder Joints Fabricated by Self-Propagating Exothermic Reaction
,”
27th International Microprocesses and Nanotechnology Conference
, Paper No. 6P-7-93.
15.
Namazu
,
T.
,
Ohtani
,
K.
,
Inoue
,
S.
, and
Miyake
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Influence of Exothermic Reactive Layer and Metal Interlayer on Fracture Behavior of Reactively Bonded Solder Joints
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
137
(
3
), p.
031011
.
16.
Namazu
,
T.
,
Maruo
,
N.
, and
Inoue
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Influences of Film Composition and Annealing on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of W-Mo Thin Films
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
47
(
6
), pp.
2725
2730
.
17.
Huurman
,
M.
, and
Pronk
,
A. C.
,
2009
, “
Theoretical Analysis of the 4 Point Bending Test
,”
Advanced Testing and Characterization of Bituminous Materials
, Vol. 2,
A
.
Loizos.
,
M. N
.
Partl.
,
T
.
Scarpas.
, and
I. L
.
Al-Qadi.
, eds.,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton
, pp.
749
760
.
18.
Kim
,
K. S.
,
Huh
,
S. H.
, and
Suganuma
,
K.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Intermetallic Compounds on Properties of Sn–Ag–Cu Lead-Free Soldered Joints
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
352
(
1–2
), pp.
226
236
.
19.
Kim
,
K. S.
,
Huh
,
S. H.
, and
Suganuma
,
K.
,
2003
, “
Effects of Fourth Alloying Additive on Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Sn–Ag–Cu Alloy and Joints With Cu
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
43
(
2
), pp.
259
267
.
20.
Chang
,
T. C.
,
Hon
,
M. H.
, and
Wang
,
M. C.
,
2003
, “
Intermetallic Compounds Formation and Interfacial Adhesion Strength of Sn–9Zn–0.5Ag Solder Alloy Hot-Dipped on Cu Substrate
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
352
(
1–2
), pp.
168
174
.
21.
Lee
,
H. T.
,
Chen
,
M. H.
,
Jao
,
H. M.
, and
Liao
,
T. L.
,
2003
, “
Influence of Interfacial Intermetallic Compound on Fracture Behavior of Solder Joints
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
358
(
1–2
), pp.
134
141
.
22.
Lee
,
H. T.
, and
Chen
,
M. H.
,
2002
, “
Influence of Intermetallic Compounds on the Adhesive Strength of Solder Joints
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
333
(
1–2
), pp.
24
34
.
23.
Jeong
,
S.
,
Murata
,
N.
,
Sato
,
Y.
,
Suzuki
,
K.
, and
Miura
,
H.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Copper-Tin Intermetallic Compound on Reliability of Fine Bump Joint Structures
,”
J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn.
,
58
(
10
), pp.
827
832
.
24.
Jang
,
G. Y.
,
Lee
,
J. W.
, and
Duh
,
J. G.
,
2004
, “
The Nanoindentation Characteristics of Cu6Sn5, Cu3Sn, and Ni3Sn4 Intermetallic Compounds in the Solder Bump
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
33
(
10
), pp.
1103
1110
.
25.
Lucas
,
J. P.
,
Rhee
,
H.
,
Guo
,
F.
, and
Subramanian
,
K. N.
,
2003
, “
Mechanical Properties of Intermetallic Compounds Associated With Pb-Free Solder Joints Using Nanoindentation
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
32
(
12
), pp.
1375
1383
.
26.
Suganuma
,
K.
, and
Nakamura
,
Y.
,
1995
, “
Microstructure and Strength of Interface Between Sn–Ag Eutectic Solder and Cu
,”
J. Jpn. Inst. Met.
,
59
(
12
), pp.
1299
1305
.
27.
Suga
,
T.
,
1992
, “
The Feasibility of Room Temperature Joining
,”
J. Jpn. Weld. Soc.
,
61
(
2
), pp.
98
106
(in Japanese).
28.
Watanabe
,
H.
,
2005
, “
The Lead-Free Solder of Addition Micro-Elements in Industrial Products
,”
J. Jpn. Inst. Electron. Packag.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
183
187
(in Japanese).
29.
Hirose
,
A.
,
2007
, “
A Novel Bonding Process Using Ag Nanoparticles—Application to Electronics Assembly as Alternative to Microsoldering Using Lead-Rich Solders
,”
J. Jpn. Weld. Soc.
,
76
(
3
), pp.
163
167
(in Japanese).
30.
Yamashita
,
M.
,
Shiokawa
,
K.
, and
Ueda
,
A.
,
2000
, “
Evaluation Technology of Lead-Free Solders
,”
Fuji Electric J.
,
73
(
9
), pp.
483
492
(in Japanese).
You do not currently have access to this content.