We investigate properties that govern interfacial fracture within the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics, including interfacial fracture toughness, mode mixity, and the associated reference length. The reference length describes the arbitrary location where the mode mixity is evaluated, ahead of the crack tip, in a bimaterial system. A method for establishing a reference length that is fixed for a given bimaterial system is proposed. This is referred to as the “characteristic reference length,” with the associated “characteristic mode mixity.” The proposed method is illustrated with an experimental investigation, utilizing a four-point bend test of a bimaterial system.

1.
Evans
,
A. G.
,
Ruhle
,
M.
,
Dalgleish
,
B. J.
, and
Charalambides
,
P. G.
, 1990, “
The Fracture Energy of Bimaterial Interfaces
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., A
0921-5093,
126
, pp.
53
64
.
2.
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
, and
Suo
,
Z.
, 1992, “
Mixed-Mode Cracking in Layered Materials
,”
Adv. Appl. Mech.
0065-2156,
29
, pp.
63
191
.
3.
Dauskardt
,
R.
,
Lane
,
M.
,
Ma
,
Q.
, and
Krishna
,
N.
, 1998, “
Adhesion and Debonding of Multi-Layer Thin Film Structures
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
61
(
1
), pp.
141
162
.
4.
Thouless
,
M. D.
, 1990, “
Fracture of a Model Interface Under Mixed-Mode Loading
,”
Acta Metall. Mater.
0956-7151,
38
(
6
), pp.
1135
1140
.
5.
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
, 1990, “
Mixed Mode Fracture Mechanics of Interfaces
,”
Metal-Ceramic Interfaces, Acta-Scripta Metallurgica Proceedings
,
Series 4
,
M.
Rühle
,
et al.
, eds.
Pergamon Press
, New York.
6.
Charalambides
,
P. G.
,
Lund
,
J.
,
Evans
,
A. G.
, and
McMeeking
,
R. M.
, 1989, “
A Test Specimen for Determining the Fracture Resistance of Bimaterial Interfaces
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
0021-8936,
56
, pp.
77
82
.
7.
Odowd
,
N. P.
,
Shih
,
C. F.
, and
Stout
,
M. G.
, 1992, “
Test Geometries for Measuring Interfacial Fracture-Toughness
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
0020-7683,
29
(
5
), pp.
571
589
.
8.
Cao
,
H. C.
, and
Evans
,
A. G.
, 1989, “
An Experimental-Study of the Fracture-Resistance of Bimaterial Interfaces
,”
Mech. Mater.
0167-6636,
7
(
4
), pp.
295
304
.
9.
Shih
,
C. F.
, 1991, “
Cracks on Bimaterial Interfaces—Elasticity and Plasticity Aspects
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., A
0921-5093,
143
(
1-2
), pp.
77
90
.
10.
Wang
,
J.-S.
, 1995, “
Interfacial Fracture Toughness of a Copper-Alumina System and the Effect of the Loading Phase Angle
,”
Mech. Mater.
0167-6636,
20
(
3
), pp.
251
259
.
11.
Wang
,
J. S.
, and
Suo
,
Z.
, 1990, “
Experimental-Determination of Interfacial Toughness Curves Using Brazil-Nut-Sandwiches
,”
Acta Metall. Mater.
0956-7151,
38
(
7
), pp.
1279
1290
.
12.
Ikeda
,
T.
,
Miyazaki
,
N.
, and
Soda
,
T.
, 1998, “
Mixed Mode Fracture Criterion of Interface Crack Between Dissimilar Materials
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
59
(
6
), pp.
725
735
.
13.
Yuuki
,
R.
,
Liu
,
J. Q.
,
Xu
,
J. Q.
,
Ohira
,
T.
, and
Ono
,
T.
, 1994, “
Mixed-Mode Fracture Criteria for an Interface Crack
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
47
(
3
), pp.
367
377
.
14.
Xu
,
L. M.
, and
Tippur
,
H. V.
, 1995, “
Fracture Parameters for Interfacial Cracks—An Experimental-Finite Element Study of Crack-Tip Fields and Crack Initiation Toughness
,”
Int. J. Fract.
0376-9429,
71
(
4
), pp.
345
363
.
15.
Shanbhag
,
M. R.
,
Eswaran
,
K.
, and
Maiti
,
S. K.
, 1993, “
Measurement of Fracture-Toughness of Bimaterial Interfaces and a Stress-Based Approach to Their Fracture
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
44
(
1
), pp.
75
89
.
16.
Dollhofer
,
J.
,
Beckert
,
W.
,
Lauke
,
B.
, and
Schneider
,
K.
, 2000, “
Fracture Mechanical Characterisation of Mixed-Mode Toughness of Thermoplast/Glass Interfaces
,”
Comput. Mater. Sci.
0927-0256,
19
(
1-4
), pp.
223
228
.
17.
Wang
,
C. H.
, 1997, “
Fracture of Interface Cracks Under Combined Loading
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
56
(
1
), pp.
77
86
.
18.
Madhusudhana
,
K. S.
, and
Narasimhan
,
R.
, 2002, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Mixed Mode Crack Growth Resistance of a Ductile Adhesive Joint
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
69
(
7
), pp.
865
883
.
19.
Yeung
,
D. T. S.
,
Yuen
,
M. M. F.
,
Lam
,
D. C. C.
, and
Chan
,
P. C. H.
, 2000, “
Measurement of Interfacial Fracture Toughness for Microelectronic Packages
,”
J. Electron. Manuf.
0960-3131,
10
(
2
), pp.
139
145
.
20.
Williams
,
M. L.
, 1959, “
The Stresses Around a Fault or Crack in Dissimilar Media
,”
Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.
0037-1106,
49
, pp.
199
204
.
21.
Rice
,
J. R.
, and
Sih
,
G. C.
, 1965, “
Plane Problems of Cracks in Dissimilar Media
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
0021-8936,
32
(
2
), pp.
418
423
.
22.
Malyshev
,
B. M.
, and
Salganik
,
R. L.
, 1965, “
Strength of Adhesive Joints Using Theory of Cracks
,”
Int. J. Fract. Mech.
0020-7268,
1
(
2
), pp.
114
128
.
23.
Rice
,
J. R.
, 1988, “
Elastic Fracture Mechanics Concepts for Interfacial Cracks
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
0021-8936,
55
, pp.
98
103
.
24.
Rice
,
J. R.
,
Suo
,
Z.
, and
Wang
,
J.-S.
, 1990, “
Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Brittle Interfacial Failure in Bimaterial Systems
,”
Acta-Scripta Metallurgica Proceedings Series
,
M.
Ruhle
,
et al.
, ed,
Pergamon Press
, London, pp.
269
294
.
25.
Suo
,
Z. G.
, and
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
, 1990, “
Interface Crack Between 2 Elastic Layers
,”
Int. J. Fract.
0376-9429,
43
(
1
), pp.
1
18
.
26.
Toya
,
M.
, 1992, “
On Mode-I and Mode-II Energy-Release Rates of an Interface Crack
,”
Int. J. Fract.
0376-9429,
56
(
4
), pp.
345
352
.
27.
Agrawal
,
A.
, and
Karlsson
,
A. M.
, 2006, “
Obtaining Stress Intensity Factor-Based Mode Mixity for a Bimaterial Interface Crack Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique
,”
Int. J. Fract.
0376-9429,
141
, pp.
75
98
.
28.
Beuth
,
J. L.
, 1996, “
Separation of Crack Extension Modes in Orthotropic Delamination Models
,”
Int. J. Fract.
0376-9429,
77
(
4
), pp.
305
321
.
29.
Comninou
,
M.
, 1977, “
Interface Crack
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
0021-8936,
44
(
4
), pp.
631
636
.
30.
Matos
,
P. P. L.
,
McMeeking
,
R. M.
,
Charalambides
,
P. G.
, and
Drory
,
M. D.
, 1989, “
A Method for Calculating Stress Intensities in Bimaterial Fracture
,”
Int. J. Fract.
0376-9429,
40
(
4
), pp.
235
254
.
31.
Lu
,
H.
, and
Chiang
,
F. P.
, 1993, “
Photoelastic Determination of Stress Intensity Factor of an Interfacial Crack in a Bi-Material
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
0021-8936,
60
(
1
), pp.
93
100
.
32.
Wang
,
Y. Y.
,
Chiang
,
F. P.
,
Barsoum
,
R. S.
, and
Chou
,
S. T.
, 1993, “
Study of Deformation Field of Interface Crack in Adhesive Joint
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
44
(
2
), pp.
175
184
.
33.
Comninou
,
M.
, 1990, “
An Overview of Interface Cracks
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
37
(
1
), pp.
197
208
.
34.
Toya
,
M.
, 1990, “
Fracture-Mechanics of Interfaces
,”
JSME Int. J., Ser. I
0914-8809,
33
(
4
), pp.
413
424
.
35.
Borovkov
,
A.
,
Palmov
,
V.
,
Banichuk
,
N.
,
Saurin
,
V.
,
Barthold
,
F.
, and
Stein
,
E.
, 2000, “
Macro-Failure Criterion for the Theory of Laminated Composite Structures With Free Edge Delaminations
,”
Comput. Struct.
0045-7949,
76
(
1-3
), pp.
195
204
.
36.
Cook
,
T. S.
, and
Erdogan
,
F.
, 1972, “
Stresses in Bonded Materials With a Crack Perpendicular to Interface
,”
Int. J. Eng. Sci.
0020-7225,
10
(
8
), pp.
677
697
.
37.
Becker
, Jr.,
T. L.
,
McNaney
,
J. M.
,
Cannon
,
R. M.
, and
Ritchie
,
R. O.
, 1997, “
Limitations on the Use of the Mixed-Mode Delaminating Beam Test Specimen: Effects of the Size of the Region of K-Dominance
,”
Mech. Mater.
0167-6636,
25
, pp.
291
308
.
38.
Broek
,
D.
, 1986,
Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics
,
Kluwer
, Dordrecht.
39.
Agrawal
,
A.
, and
Karlsson
,
A. M.
2006, “
Mode Mixity Issues in Interfacial Toughness Measurement of Bilayer Specimens
,” SAMPE 06, Long Beach, CA.
40.
Klingbeil
,
N. W.
, and
Beuth
,
J. L.
, 1997, “
Interfacial Fracture Testing of Deposited Metal Layers Under Four-Point Bending
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
0013-7944,
56
(
1
), pp.
113
126
.
41.
Howard
,
S. J.
,
Phillipps
,
A. J.
, and
Clyne
,
T. W.
, 1993, “
The Interpretation of Data From the 4-Point Bend Delamination Test to Measure Interfacial Fracture-Toughness
,”
Composites
0010-4361,
24
(
2
), pp.
103
112
.
42.
Charalambides
,
P. G.
,
Cao
,
H. C.
,
Lund
,
J.
, and
Evans
,
A. G.
, 1990, “
Development of a Test Method for Measuring the Mixed-Mode Fracture-Resistance of Bimaterial Interfaces
,”
Mech. Mater.
0167-6636,
8
(
4
), pp.
269
283
.
43.
Drory
,
M. D.
,
Thouless
,
M. D.
, and
Evans
,
A. G.
, 1988, “
On the Decohesion of Residually Stressed Thin-Films
,”
Acta Metall.
0001-6160,
36
(
8
), pp.
2019
2028
.
44.
ABAQUS, ABAQUS 6.5. 2004, ABAQUS Inc., Pawtucket, RI.
45.
Yang
,
W.
, and
Shih
,
C. F.
, 1994, “
Fracture Along an Interlayer
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
0020-7683,
31
(
7
), pp.
985
1002
.
46.
Compston
,
P.
,
Jar
,
P. Y. B.
,
Burchill
,
P. J.
, and
Takahashi
,
K.
, 2002, “
The Transfer of Matrix Toughness to Composite Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness in Glass-Fibre/Vinyl Ester Composites
,”
Appl. Compos. Mater.
0929-189X,
9
(
5
), pp.
291
314
.
You do not currently have access to this content.