This paper describes a multiaxial low cycle fatigue parameter for correlating Hues under nonproportional loadings. Constant amplitude low cycle fatigue tests were carried out under 14 proportional and complex nonproportional cyclic strain paths using type 304 stainless steel hollow cylinder specimens at room temperature. In nonproportional loading tests, fatigue lives are decreased by as much as a factor of 10 in comparison with those in proportional loading tests with the same strain range. Reduction in fatigue life due to nonproportional loading is closely related to additional nonproportional cyclic hardening. The product of the maximum principal stress and strain ranges correlated the nonproportional fatigue data. A nonproportional cyclic hardening parameter computed from the strain path is also proposed that allows life estimates to be obtained directly from the strain history without the need for a cyclic plasticity model.

1.
ASME Code Case N-47, 1978, Case of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Case N-47, Class 1, Section 3, Division 1, ASME.
2.
Benallal
A.
, and
Marquis
D.
,
1987
, “
Constitutive Equations for Nonproportional Cyclic Elasto-Viscoplasticity
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
109
, No.
4
, pp.
326
336
.
3.
Doong
S. H.
,
Socie
D. F.
, and
Robertson
I. M.
,
1990
, “
Dislocation jubstructures and Nonproportional Hardening
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
112
, No.
4
, pp.
456
465
.
4.
Doong
S. H.
, and
Socie
D. F.
,
1991
, “
Constitutive Modeling of Metals Under Nonproportional Loading
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
113
, No.
1
, pp.
23
30
.
5.
Fatemi
A.
, and
Socie
D. F.
,
1988
, “
A Critical Plane Approach to Multiaxial Fatigue Damage Including Out-of-Phase Loading
,”
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures
, Vol.
11
, No.
3
, pp.
149
165
.
6.
Itoh, T., Sakane, M., Ohnami, M., Takahashi, Y., and Ogata, T., 1992a, “Nonproportional Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue Using Cruciform Specimen,” CREEP: Characterization, Damage and Life Assessments, Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. on Creep of Mater., FL (Woodford et al., eds.), pp. 331–339.
7.
Itoh, T., Sakane, M., Ohnami, M., and Ameyama, K., 1992b, “Additional Hardening due to Nonproportional Loading,—A Contribution of Stacking Fault Energy,” MECAMAT’92, Proc. Int. Seminar on Multiaxial Plasticity, Cachan, France (Benallal et al., eds.), pp. 43–50.
8.
Itoh
T.
,
Sakane
M.
, and
Ohnami
M.
,
1994
, “
High Temperature Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue of Cruciform Specimen
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
116
, No.
1
, pp.
90
98
.
9.
Kanazawa
K.
,
Miller
K. J.
, and
Brown
M. W.
,
1979
, “
Cyclic Deformation of 1% Cr-Mo-V. Steel Under Out-of-Phase Loads
,”
Fatigue Engineering Materials and Structures
, Vol.
2
, No.
2
, pp.
217
228
.
10.
Kitade, M., Ikari, T., Yamauchi, M., and Nakazima, K., 1987, “Cyclic Deformation and Failure of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo Steel Under Biaxial Stresses,” Proc. 25th Symp. on Strength of Mater, at High Temp., Soc. Mater. Sci., Japan, pp. 97–101.
11.
Krempl
E.
, and
Lu
H.
,
1983
, “
Comparison of the Stress Responses of an Aluminum Alloy Tube to Proportional and Alternate Axial and Shear Strain Paths at Room Temperature
,”
Mechanics of Materials
, Vol.
2
, pp.
183
192
.
12.
Krempl
E.
, and
Lu
H.
,
1984
, “
The Hardening and Rate-Dependent Behavior of Fully Annealed AISI Type 304 Stainless Steel Under Biaxial In-Phase and Out-of-Phase Strain Cycling at Room Temperature
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
106
, No.
4
, pp.
376
382
.
13.
Liu, K. C, 1991, “A Method Based on Virtual Strain-Energy Parameters for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction,” Advances in Multiaxial Fatigue, ASTM STP, No. 1191, pp. 67–84.(1993).
14.
McDowell, D. L., 1983, “On the Path Dependence of Transient Hardening and Softening to Stable States Under Complex Biaxial Cyclic Loading,” Proc. Int. Conf. on Constitutive Laws for Engng. Mater., Tucson, AZ (Desai and Gallagher, eds.), p. 125.
15.
Nishino
S.
,
Hamada
N.
,
Sakane
M.
,
Ohnami
M.
,
Matsumura
N.
, and
Tokizane
M.
,
1986
, “
Microstructural Study of Cyclic Strain Hardening Behavior in Biaxial Stress State at Elevated Temperature
,”
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures
, Vol.
9
, No.
1
, pp.
65
77
.
16.
Nitta
A.
,
Ogata
T.
, and
Kuwabara
K.
,
1987
, “
The Effect of Axial-Torsional Strain Phase on Elevated-Temperature Biaxial Low-Cycle Fatigue Life in SUS304 Stainless Steel
,”
J. Soc. Mater. Sci., Japan
, Vol.
36
, No.
403
, pp.
376
382
.
17.
Nitta
A.
,
Ogata
T.
, and
Kuwabara
K.
,
1988
, “
Relationship Between Fracture Mode and Fatigue Life under Biaxial Loading at 550°C in SUS304 Stainless Steel
,”
J. Soc. Mater. Sci., Japan
, Vol.
37
, No.
414
, pp.
334
339
.
18.
Nitta
A.
,
Ogata
T.
, and
Kuwabara
K.
,
1989
, “
Fracture Modes and Fatigue Life Evaluation of SUS304 Stainless Steel under Non-Proportional Biaxial Loading Condition at 550°C
,”
J. Soc. Mater. Sci., Japan
, Vol.
38
, No.
427
, pp.
416
422
.
19.
Ohnami
M.
, and
Hamada
N.
,
1981
, “
Crack Propagation Behavior of Biaxial Low-Cycle Fatigue at Elevated Temperature, —Effect of the Cyclic Principal Stressing in Parallel with the Fatigue Crack and the Rotation of the Principal Stress Axes
,”
J. Soc. Mater. Sci., Japan
, Vol.
30
, No.
335
, pp.
822
828
.
20.
Ohnami, M., Sakane, M., and Hamada, N., 1985, “Effect of Changing Principal Stress Axes on Low-Cycle Fatigue Life in Various Strain Wave Shapes at Elevated Temperature,” ASTM STP, No. 853, pp. 622–634.
21.
Ohnami
M.
,
Sakane
M.
, and
Nishino
S.
,
1988
, “
Cyclic Behavior of a Type 304 Stainless Steel in Biaxial Stress States at Elevated Temperatures
,”
International J. Plasticity
, Vol.
4
, No.
1
, pp.
77
89
.
22.
Sakane
M.
,
Ohnami
M.
, and
Sawada
M.
,
1987
, “
Fracture Modes and Low Cycle Fatigue Life in Biaxial Stress State at Elevated Temperature
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
109
, No.
3
, pp.
236
243
.
23.
Sakane
M.
,
Ohnami
M.
, and
Sawada
M.
,
1991
, “
Biaxial Low Cycle Fatigue of Unaged and Aged 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V Steels at Elevated Temperature
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
113
, No.
2
, pp.
244
253
.
24.
Smith
R. N.
,
Watson
P.
, and
Topper
T. H.
,
1970
, “
A Stress Strain Function for the Fatigue of Materials
,”
J. Materials JMLSA
, Vol.
5
, No.
4
, pp.
767
778
.
25.
Socie
D. F.
,
1987
, “
Multiaxial Fatigue Damage Models
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
109
, No.
4
, pp.
293
298
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.