In this investigation, thin-walled circular cylindrical specimens fabricated from a low alloy pressure vessel steel (ASTM A-516 Gr. 70) were subjected to various multiaxial loading conditions. The tests were conducted under strain-controlled condition, and loading was provided through an axial actuator and internal and external pressure across the specimen wall. Four in-plane strain ratios (ρ = Δεt/Δεa) were tested, and the most damaging case was the equi-biaxial in-plane straining, ρ = 1. For the latter condition, 90 deg out-of-phase loading was also investigated. These tests indicated a dramatic decrease in the number of cycles to failure, Nf, as a result of out-of-phase loading. The influence of the plastic strain path on life is thus clearly demonstrated. It is shown that the total strain energy density, ΔWt = ΔWe+ + ΔWp, correlates with both the in-phase and out-of-phase cyclic tests, and therefore is a proper damage parameter to be used for life predictions. A brief description of how ΔWt can be calculated is given for the case of proportional loading. The predicted results are compared with the experimental data, and the agreement is found to be very good indeed.

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